The Open Access Landscape: 7. Computer Science

Posted in open access on April 10th, 2015

Computer Science includes software, data processing, AI, robotics and portions of what might be considered information science. This topic includes 338 journals, which published a total of 23,281 articles in 2013 and essentially the same number (not allowing for new journals), 23,153, in 2014.

 Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J A 188 56% 10,667 46% 57 Free 116 62% 4,061 38% 35 Pay 72 38% 6,606 62% 92 A\$ pay 11 3% 1,533 7% 139 B 60 18% 7,100 30% 118 Free 16 27% 1,057 15% 66 Pay 44 73% 6,043 85% 137 C 19 6% 3,394 15% 179 Free 1 5% 15 0% 15 Pay 6 32% 2,361 70% 394 Unk 12 63% 1,018 30% 85 D 60 18% 587 3% 10 Free 45 75% 361 61% 8 Pay 15 25% 226 39% 15

Table 7.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 7.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all computer science journals or articles, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade. So, for example, 18% of the journals are grade B, and 27% of that 18% are free.

Since A\$ means an APC of \$1,000 or more, all A\$ journals are Pay, so that line doesn’t appear. As is fairly typical, those journals average many more articles per journal than other A journals—but, unusually, they average fewer articles per journal than the highly questionable C journals and just more than the large number of APC-charging B journals. Across the board and as usual, however, journals with APCs publish more articles—on average—than journals without APCs.

The D journals, which as usual include relatively few articles, include these subgroups: C: five journals with 33 articles in 2013; D: ten journals, 37 articles; E: 12 journals, 41 articles; H: 11 journals, 393 articles; S: 22 journals, 83 articles.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

 2014 2013 2012 2011 Journals 284 316 304 262 %Free 53% 54% 55% 58% Articles 22,314 22,263 20,111 12,562 %Free 22% 25% 27% 31%

Table 7.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 7.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published and what percentage were free.

The 12 “unknown” journals (with 1,018 articles in 2013, a fairly large number for journals that conceal their APCs) are omitted. The numbers still don’t add up to 338 because some journals don’t publish articles in any give year—ten of them in 2013, for example.

Although most computer science OA journals don’t charge APCs, the percentages here are lower than for OA as a whole or STEM, and show a slow decline (that is, increase in APC-charging journals) over recent years. The article percentages are distinctly low even for STEM, and the percentage of free articles has been steadily declining.

Without the “unknown” journals, total OA articles increased marginally in 2014, after a modest increase from 2012 and a huge increase from 2011. It’s quite possible that OA activity in computer science fields has plateaued, although new journals may change that picture.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 120 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 20 stayed the same; 198 published fewer articles in 2014. In terms of significant change, 111 journals (33%) published at least 10% more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 58 (17%) were relatively unchanged; and 169 (precisely half) published at least 10% fewer articles in 2014—including 42 that, so far, have not published any articles in 2014 (but a few of those are tricky cases, because one publisher’s archival controls seem to be malfunctioning).

 Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee % Prolific 4 0% 3,316 0% Large 26 8% 8,691 8% Medium 86 29% 7,193 30% Small 124 62% 3,284 64% Sparse 98 76% 797 69%

Table 7.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 7.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is free or in no-fee journals. The pattern here is not terribly unusual: the prolific journals all charge APCs, nearly all of the large ones also do, and two-thirds of the small and sparse ones don’t.

Fees (APCs)

 APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All High 5 3% 2% 719 4% 3% Medium 21 14% 6% 1,273 8% 5% Low 43 29% 13% 5,964 36% 26% Nominal 79 53% 24% 8,813 53% 38% None 178 55% 5,494 24%

Table 7.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 7.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles for those journals. “Unknowns”—journals with APCs that aren’t stated—are left out of these calculations.

Since fee ranges for the OA universe were established based on actual quartiles (that is, 25% of fee-charging journals are in each range from High through Nominal), deviations from 25% represent differences between computer science OA journals and OA as a while. Here’ the differences are fairly clear: computer science journals are far less likely to charge high or even medium APCs than fee-charging OA journals as a whole—and the journals with relatively high fees don’t publish a large percentage of articles.

There is no statistical correlation (-0.06) between APC level and volume of articles; given the broad figures, a negative correlation might be expected.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

 Year Total Free% 1980-89 2 50% 1990-91 0 1992-93 2 100% 1994-95 2 100% 1996-97 6 83% 1998-99 7 100% 2000-01 11 91% 2002-03 19 79% 2004-05 19 79% 2006-07 35 57% 2008-09 66 53% 2010-11 111 43% 2012-13 57 30%

Table 7.5. Starting dates for computer science OA journals

Table 7.5 shows computer science journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently do not charge APCs.

For DOAJ as a whole, I get a sense of a gold rush of new APC-charging journals from 2006 through 2011, diminishing somewhat since then. Not surprisingly, there are no very early computer science OA journals: before 1980, there just wasn’t much of a field there. The gold rush seems clear enough: from 1992 through 2005, at least three-quarters of OA journals do not charge APCs—but that percentage drops sharply in later years as the number of new journals rises sharply. Figure 7.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 7.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals, including markers so that certain dates show up. I think the graph is fairly clear: almost no APC-charging journals as free journals started rising—then a huge surge in APC-charging journals through 2010-2011.

Figure 7.1. Computer science OA journals by starting date

 Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl 1980-89 2 23 12 1990-91 0 0 1992-93 2 65 33 1994-95 2 166 83 1996-97 6 303 51 1998-99 6 334 56 2000-01 11 375 34 2002-03 18 1,279 71 2004-05 18 2,165 120 2006-07 33 2,125 64 2008-09 64 4,184 65 2010-11 109 8,434 77 2012-13 57 3,828 67

Table 7.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 7.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and average articles per journal. Two time periods stand out: journals that began in 2004-2005 have considerably more articles per journal than others, with 1994-95 not too far behind.

Computer science is generally a newer field than most other broad topical divisions. While the emergence of hundreds of OA journals, most of them charging APCs, suggests a gold rush, most of those journals charge relatively modest fees—and the ones with four-digit APCs don’t publish a high percentage of articles.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

Cites & Insights 15:5 (May 2015) available

Posted in Cites & Insights on April 6th, 2015

The 2-column print-oriented version is 24 pages long.

If you’re reading it online or on an e-reader (tablet, etc.), or if you want working links, you may prefer the one-column 6×9″ version (46 pages long), available at http://citesandinsights.info/civ15i5on.pdf

This issue includes:

The Front: The Open Access Landscape  pp. 1-3

Notes on the series of blog posts that began in early March 2015 and will continue through either mid-September or mid-November; the potential book that would combine those posts and add new material; and the possibility of a five-year longitudinal study of the state of gold OA (2011-2015) in 2016, if funding becomes available.

Libraries: FriendFeed, Going. LSW, Not.  pp. 3-10

An elegy (of sorts) for FriendFeed, scheduled to disappear on April 9 (unless Facebook listens to InfoWorld and others and lets it keep going)–and to the Library Society of the World, which in its own informal way has meant so much to me and many others.

Social Networks: Slightly More Than 140 Characters Words Sentences Paragraphs About Twitter  pp. 10-19

A possibly-amusing set of mostly-old musings by others about Twitter’s inevitable decline and fall, certainly gone by now, and the decline of Western civilization–also why it’s nothing but a note-taking system and the need for balance.

The Back  pp. 19-24

Ten brief (and some not-so-brief) rants and amusements.

The Open Access Landscape: 6. Chemistry

Posted in open access on April 3rd, 2015

Chemistry as a subject doesn’t seem to require much clarification (noting that most biochem ended up in Biology). This subject includes 136 OA journals that published 12,258 articles in 2013 and almost exactly the same number (12,429) in 2014.

 Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J A 72 53% 5,431 44% 75 Free 57 79% 3,114 57% 55 Pay 15 21% 2,317 43% 154 A\$ pay 14 10% 5,123 42% 366 B 15 11% 610 5% 41 Free 6 40% 153 25% 26 Pay 9 60% 457 75% 51 C 11 8% 725 6% 66 Free 2 18% 122 17% 61 Pay 4 36% 365 50% 91 Unk 5 45% 238 33% 48 D 24 18% 369 3% 15 Free 15 63% 242 66% 16 Pay 9 38% 127 34% 14

Table 6.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 6.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Note that boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all chemistry journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade (so, for example, 8% of the journals are grade C, highly questionable, and 36% of those eight journals require APCs and say what they are).

Since A\$ means an APC of \$1,000 or higher, all A\$ journals are in the Pay category and the redundant line is omitted. Chemistry is an extreme case of the expensive journals having many more articles than other journals—with 10% of the journals, this group published 42% of the articles, more than twice as many per journal as less expensive apparently-good journals. Note that most apparently-good journals that don’t cost \$1,000 or more per article don’t charge APCs at all—79% of them, publishing a majority of the articles in that group.

The group of D journals includes these subgroups: C: seven journals, publishing 85 articles in 2013 and 59 in 2014; no D journals; E: two journals publishing seven articles in 2013—but 41 in 2014; H: four journals publishing 242 articles in 2013 but only 113 in 2014; N: one journal, no articles in either year; S: ten journals publishing 35 articles in 2013 but only 17 in 2014 (noting that S journals are sometimes annuals and publish on a delayed basis).

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

 2014 2013 2012 2011 Journals 123 126 115 99 %Free 61% 61% 59% 58% Articles 12,261 12,020 11,139 9,016 %Free 29% 30% 32% 37%

Table 6.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 6.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published, and what percentage were free.

The five “unknown” journals (with 238 articles in 2013) are omitted from all figures and percentages. The numbers may still not add up because there are some journals that don’t publish articles in any given year—five of them in 2013, for example.

The percentage of free journals is fairly typical of OA in general and, somewhat oddly for STEM, actually increased over the past few years. On the other hand, the percentage of articles appearing in free journals is quite low (although higher than biology) and has declined significantly since 2011.

These journals published slightly more articles in 2014 than in 2013, after mild growth from 2012 and significant growth from 2011. Note that, as always, journals that began in 2014 (or appeared in DOAJ after May 7, 2014) are not included; you might expect 5% more journals based on past history, but most of them probably wouldn’t publish a lot in the first year.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 64 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; eight published the same number; and 64 published fewer articles in 2014—a nicely symmetric set of results. In terms of significant change, 53 journals (39%) published at least 10% more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 33 (24%) were relatively unchanged; and 50 (37%) published at least 10% fewer articles, including six that have not yet published any 2014 articles.

 Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee % Prolific 2 0% 2,406 0% Large 17 47% 5,903 39% Medium 25 68% 2,107 72% Small 58 18% 1,542 19% Sparse 34 66% 300 61%

Table 6.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 6.3 shows the number of journals in each size range, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is in no-free journals. The picture here is a bit unusual: Although, as usual, prolific journals charge APCs and larger journals tend to charge APCs, with the percentage of free journals getting larger as the volume of articles gets smaller, small chemistry journals (20 to 59 articles in the peak year) mostly do charge APCs, unlike medium-size and sparse journals.

Fees (APCs)

 APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All High 5 10% 4% 2,473 29% 21% Medium 21 41% 16% 2,878 34% 24% Low 11 22% 8% 1,037 12% 9% Nominal 14 27% 11% 2,001 24% 17% None 80 61% 3,631 30%

Table 6.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 6.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles for those journals. Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of this universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between chemistry journals and OA as a whole—considerably fewer high-fee journals (\$1,451 and up) and considerably more medium-fee (\$601 to \$1,450). Most fee-paid articles are in journals with medium or high fees. There is a modest correlation (0.31) between APC level and peak volume of articles.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

 Year Total Free% 1970-79 1 0% 1980-89 3 67% 1990-91 1 100% 1996-97 6 67% 1998-99 3 100% 2000-01 5 60% 2002-03 5 100% 2004-05 7 100% 2006-07 16 63% 2008-09 15 33% 2010-11 42 45% 2012-13 31 68%

Table 6.5. Starting dates for chemistry OA journals

Table 6.5 shows OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in each date range that currently don’t charge APCs. There are very few old chemistry journals that are currently OA—none before 1970 and only five total prior to 1996—and in this case the gold rush, such as it is, appears to run from 2008 to 2011. Figure 6.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 6.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. I’ve included markers for APC-charging journals, since otherwise nothing would appear before 2006. Note gaps in dates in the graph—and the empty space for 1970-79 is because the single OA journal started in that period has an unknown APC.

Figure 6.1. Chemistry journals by starting date

 Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl 1970-79 1 48 48 1980-89 3 1,021 340 1990-91 1 258 258 1996-97 6 1,370 228 1998-99 3 348 116 2000-01 5 1,607 321 2002-03 4 345 86 2004-05 6 441 74 2006-07 15 2,363 158 2008-09 15 1,454 97 2010-11 41 1,651 40 2012-13 31 1,352 44

Table 6.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 6.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, how many articles they published in 2013 and the average articles per journal. The numbers are all over the place, with notably prolific journals starting in the 1980s, 1996-97 and 2000-2001.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

Ten Years of W.a.R.

Posted in Writing and blogging on April 1st, 2015

Ten years. I’ve been doing this for ten years.

The first post on Walt at Random appeared on April 1, 2005; the date was intentional.

Back then, I still worked at RLG. (Back then, there still was an RLG.) I was still writing two columns, one in EContent and one in Online. Cites & Insights was in its fifth year. And the blog seemed like a good idea at the time.

Since then? More than 2,000 posts (the dashboard says 1,990, but I’ve deleted some posts such as announcements of Lulu sales). 4,118 posted comments (almost none in recent years), plus 105,113 spamments and counting.

Here’s a look at posting frequency—counting only posts that are still available:

Maybe you can see a pattern in that graph, other than things completely falling apart in 2014. I can’t.

Major categories: Writing and blogging; Cites & Insights; Movies and TV; Books and publishing…and Stuff, which is partly posts I forget to categorize.

I’d link to the very first post, but I keep getting the fourth post when I try to do that. Not very interesting anyway.

Looking back ten years, I do notice one thing: there are several minor items I’ve thought about blogging about…and it turns out I already did. Ten years ago.

As for overall statistics: I haven’t a clue. (Yeah, I know, but also not about overall W.a.R. statistics.) The program that’s currently running only shows statistics for the current month. As of yesterday (when I’m actually writing this), March 31, 2015, at about 5 a.m., here’s what I see:

6.213 unique visitors. 2,2690 visits from people, with 57,291 pages. Another 183,181 pages (192,745 hits) of “not viewed traffic”—robots, worms, etc.

The summary does show other months for the current year; turns out uniqwue visitors is nearly constant, at 6,189-6,298 per month.

As for the most visited pages for March 2015? That’s an odd lot. Excluding overhead (/feed/ and the like):

• Signs of Spring (April 16, 2011), 2,420 views—a post about our photovoltaic system. Really?
• Post-OCLC: A midterm update (August 7, 2007), 1,359 views—now that’s just sad. (I should note that I got lots of kind words during the process, but also that there’s one library director I hope never to encounter again, as he made a point of saying how wonderful it was that RLG had been merged, resulting in my job loss—and that was all he—and of course it was a he—said. Apparently simply not responding wasn’t an option, where gratuitous salt-rubbing was.)
• The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background (March 3, 2015), 649 views—finally, a current post.
• The Open Access Landscape: 2. Agriculture (March 6, 2015), 415 views

And a mix of old and new with fewer than 400 views.

The #1 search keyphrase: “what is a peachcot”

Which seems like an ideal place to end this blogiversary post.

The Open Access Landscape: 5. Biology

Posted in open access on March 27th, 2015

Biology includes most everything that has “bio” as a leading part of its topic. This topic includes 336 journals, which published a total of 24,127 articles in 2013—and, excluding brand-new journals, 29,927 articles in 2014.

 Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J A 155 46% 8,744 36% 56 Free 98 63% 5,149 59% 53 Pay 57 37% 3,595 41% 63 A\$ pay 93 28% 12,807 53% 138 B 18 5% 1,401 6% 78 Free 5 28% 377 27% 75 Pay 13 72% 1,024 73% 79 C 24 7% 825 3% 34 Free 1 4% 32 4% 32 Pay 7 29% 225 27% 32 Unk 16 67% 568 69% 36 D 46 14% 350 1% 8 Free 22 48% 192 55% 9 Pay 22 48% 151 43% 7 Unk 2 4% 7 2% 4

Table 5.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 5.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all biology journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of that grade—so, for example, 7% of the journals are grade C and 4% of those 7% are (or is, since it’s only one journal) free.

Since A\$ means an apparently-good journal with an APC of \$1,000 or more, all A\$ journals are in the Pay category; I’ve omitted a redundant line. Biology stands out for the very high percentage of articles—more than half—appearing in expensive journals, themselves a high percentage of all biology journals. Notably, those journals on average publish more than twice as many articles per journal as APC-charging apparently-good journals with lower fees (but not quite twice as many as those requiring investigation).

D journals—which, as usual, have far fewer articles per journal than any other group—break down as follows: C: 11 journals with 94 articles in 2013; D: six journals, 37 articles; E: 6 journals, 55 articles; H: seven journals, 93 articles; S: 16 journals, 71 articles.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

 2014 2013 2012 2011 Journals 301 314 299 268 %Free 39% 39% 40% 40% Articles 29,352 23,552 22,374 19,993 %Free 19% 24% 24% 24%

Table 5.2. Journals and articles by year

Table 5.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles (so far) in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published and what percentage were free. The 18 “unknown” journals (with 575 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers still don’t quite add up because some journals don’t publish articles in any given year (and it’s likely that a number of small journals haven’t yet posted 2014 articles).

The percentage of non-fee OA journals is distinctly lower than in most of OA, but has stayed fairly constant. The percentage of articles in non-fee journals is very low, much lower than typical, and dropped significantly in 2014.

Since there appear to be slight downturns in OA publishing in some topics (omitting brand-new journals), it’s worth noting the substantial increase in article count for biology journals, up by nearly a quarter (24.6%).

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 150 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 16 published the same number; 170 published fewer. In terms of significant change, 127 journals (38%) published at least 10% more articles, 68 (20%) were relatively unchanged; and 141 (42%) published significantly fewer articles, including 17 small journals that have yet to publish any 2014 articles (those 17 published a total of 90 articles in 2013) and four, one of them with more than 100 articles in 2013, that seem to have disappeared or have defective sites.

 Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee % Prolific 2 0% 2,195 0% Large 28 21% 9,837 16% Medium 90 31% 7,778 32% Small 135 41% 3,601 39% Sparse 81 46% 716 50%

Table 5.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 5.3 shows the number of journals in each size category (where “peak” does not include full-2014 numbers), 2013 articles in that group, and what percentage is or is in no-fee journals. Both of the prolific biology OA journals charge fees (one over \$1,000, one under). There’s a clear and typical stepwise correlation between the size of the journal and the likelihood of it charging APCs—although even among the two least-prolific categories, a majority of journals charge fees.

Fees (APCs)

 APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All High 94 49% 30% 12,024 68% 51% Medium 35 18% 11% 2,597 15% 11% Low 44 23% 14% 1,865 10% 8% Nominal 19 10% 6% 1,316 7% 6% None 126 40% 5,750 24%

Table 5.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 5.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: \$1,451+; Medium: \$601 to \$1,450; Low: \$201 to \$600; Nominal: \$8 to \$200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals. (Unknowns are omitted.) %Fee shows the percentage of all fee-charging journals or articles in those journals; %All shows the percentage of all journals or articles (excluding unknowns).

Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of the full study universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between biology journals and OA as a whole—e.g., a much higher percentage of high-cost journals and much lower percentage of nominal-cost journals. Also noteworthy: more than two-thirds of articles in fee-charging journals (and a majority of all articles) appeared in the most expensive journals.

There’s no significant correlation (0.10) between APC charged and peak article volume.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

 Year Total Free% Pre-1960 7 57% 1960-69 2 0% 1970-79 2 50% 1980-89 9 56% 1990-91 1 100% 1992-93 0 0% 1994-95 5 60% 1996-97 9 67% 1998-99 12 67% 2000-01 15 53% 2002-03 19 53% 2004-05 20 35% 2006-07 25 32% 2008-09 48 35% 2010-11 112 28% 2012-13 49 35%

Table 5.5. Starting dates for biology OA journals

Table 5.5 shows biology OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. (One 2014 journal is omitted.)

For DOAJ as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush starting in 2006, with a sharp increase in the percentage of APC-charging journals—and there’s certainly a sharp drop in the percentage of free biology journals, starting in 2004 rather than 2006. With one anomaly (both of the journals started in the 1960s currently charge APCs), at least half of the journals started in each time period prior to 2004 currently don’t charge APCs—but that’s true for barely more than a third in more recent periods. The gold rush shows here as a sharp increase in the overall number of biology OA journals beginning in 2008, most of those journals charging fees.

Figure 5.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 5.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals (since they’re lines without markers, the pre-1960 mark for free journals doesn’t show). Note the dramatic change starting in 2006.

Figure 5.1. Biology journals by starting date

 Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl Pre-1960 6 308 51 1960-69 2 186 93 1970-79 2 117 59 1980-89 9 442 49 1990-91 1 30 30 1992-93 0 0 0 1994-95 5 527 105 1996-97 9 483 54 1998-99 12 1,044 87 2000-01 15 1,082 72 2002-03 18 2,356 131 2004-05 20 2,872 144 2006-07 25 1,756 70 2008-09 48 2,559 53 2010-11 110 8,200 75 2012-13 49 2,165 44

Table 5.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 5.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, 2013 articles and average articles per journal. Perhaps noteworthy are the high average articles per journal figures for 2002-2005.

The patterns are fairly clear: an unusually high percentage of very expensive journals, an unusually low percentage of articles in no-fee journals, a distinct gold rush in recent years.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

Mystery Classics Disc 44

Posted in Movies and TV on March 26th, 2015

What? You thought I’d given up old movies? Not entirely—but the Open Access Landscape project has been interesting enough to use up most of the Wednesday afternoons I’d otherwise spend on movies.

Power, Passion and Murder, 1983, color (TV—see below). Michelle Pfeiffer, Darren McGavin, Stella Stevens and a whole bunch of other people. 1:28.

The good parts: interesting cast members, and I believe they get the look and feel of ’30s Hollywood down pretty well…although that was even before my time.

The bad parts: Where to begin? The plot—or, rather, the two plots that seem to come and go with no real interaction—seems contrived and more vignette than anything else. One plot boils down to: studio head has a bad evening. The other boils down to: single actress seduces married man, leading rapidly to disaster. In neither case is there enough development (character or otherwise) for me to feel anything about it. The picture varies from soft and damaged to mediocre. The sound is far worse—with volume levels and distortion varying so widely that I probably missed a significant chunk of the dialogue.

Cast or no cast, this is a mess. Trying to find it in IMDB makes things even messier: it is, apparently, two separate episodes of PBS’ Great Performances mashed together into a single, well, mash. Or is it two episodes of something else? If I try to reconstruct it, there’s “Tales from the Hollywood Hills: Natica Jackson” from 1987 (or was it 1983?), with Pfeiffer and a bunch of other people—but I don’t remember seeing most of the people in the cast listing actually in the segments starring Pfeiffer. There’s also “A Table at Ciro’s” with McGavin, Stevens and others—I guess from 1983. Apparently the mess is supposed to be 16 minutes longer. It would still be a mess. Charitably, \$0.50.

Midnight Cop (orig. Killing Blue), 1988, color. Peter Patzak (dir.), Armin Mueller-Stahl, Morgan Fairchild, Frank Stallone, Julia Kent, Michael York. 1:36.

This nourish cop flick set in Berlin is a little strange at times (the police station seems to be going through some extreme renovations that involve lots of broken toilets), but it’s also surprisingly effective and tags an ending onto the main plot that’s a nice, satisfying twist.

Basically, a police inspector is having trouble sleeping, lost his wife and daughter, and is pretty much messed up because he accidentally shot a young girl while trying to arrest a major criminal (who got away); he frequently takes gifts to the place where the now-crippled girl is recovering but (until late in the film) isn’t prepared to meet her. Meanwhile, he has a new assistant—and is dealing with a DA (who’s a friend) as well. The colleague’s daughter’s friend is murdered in an odd manner; they both become involved; a drug dealer seems to be the obvious suspect; a prostitute also becomes involved with the inspector and in the plot; and all is not quite what it seems.

I liked it. Morgan Fairchild makes a great prostitute; Michael York is very effective in a complicated role; Armin Mueller-Stahl, the inspector, is first-rate; the whole cast is good. Pretty good print, no real problems. I’ll give it \$1.50.

The Stoolie, 1972, color. John G. Avidsen & George Silano (dirs.), Jackie Mason, Dan Frazer, Marcia Jean Kurtz. 1:30 [1:28]

This feels like a Jackie Mason vanity project (he’s the star and the executive producer) to show his chops as a dramatic actor. If so, I’d rate it a D: he certainly maintains a cheap-grifter persona throughout, but that’s about it. He plays, well, a bozo, a low-rent criminal (who’s such a loser that his “partners” in crime screw him out of his share as a matter of course) who’s also a stoolie for one police detective in Weehawken. He ups his game enough to convince the detective to give him \$7,500 in police money to set up a string (or something)—and takes off for Miami with the money.

There, after demonstrating to various & sundry what a bozo he is, he meets up with a young woman who’s as down on life as he seems to be, and shazam, they’re in love and engaged…but the detective nearing retirement, who faces being thrown off the force for throwing away \$7,500, has tracked him down. The rest of the movie is attempts by the cop and the grifter, with the girl along for the ride, to raise the \$7,500 (he’d already spent all but a few hundred)—which the cop finally manages to do, turning thoroughly bad in the process. He drives off with his money (upped to \$10,000) and two bags of heroin taped to the car, one of which is leaking. The couple are left in Miami, where their future…well, it’s a low-rent movie. A dispiriting movie at that. Charitably, \$0.75.

Cross Mission (orig. Fuoco incrociato), 1988, color. Alfonso Brescia (dir.), Richard Randall, Brigitte Porsche (as “Porsh”), Peter Hintz, Maurice Poli. 1:31.

The plot: a military dictator has run a Latin American country for two decades. He oversees an operation to burn down one cocaine/marijuana plantation at the UN’s behest—so that he can run three other, larger plantations with better camouflage without interference. Oh, and there are rebels, which his spokesman denies. Also, the dictator has certain magical powers that involve a little person.

There’s an American woman, a photographer/journalist, and an American man, apparently a buddy of the dictator. Of course they wind up in bed. Of course the man turns rebel. Most of the movie is shooting and explosions. About the only surprise (spoiler alert): the woman winds up dead.

Truly trashy. If you’re a big fan of gunfire and explosions in the Spaghetti Western mode (the flick’s Italian), maybe \$0.50.

FriendFeed: Wouldn’t it be loverly…

Posted in Technology and software on March 25th, 2015

For those of you who’ve never heard of FriendFeed, carry on.

For those of you who are on it now–whether as part of The Library Society of the World or within other communities–nothing I say here will likely surprise you.

Facebook let us know that it’s shutting down FriendFeed on April 9, 2015. They gave us about a month’s warning, time enough to download our conversations if we chose.

I’m not attacking Facebook here. Fact is, since Facebook purchased FriendFeed (primarily for its people and software, I assumed) in 2009, we–those of us who use FriendFeed–have always assumed (I think) that eventually FriendFeed would go away. Facebook waited six years to do that, and FriendFeed was only about two years old when Facebook purchased it.

So Facebook is fully within its rights and has been remarkably patient. Facebook’s certainly correct that FriendFeed doesn’t have Facebook-size numbers (as far as I know, it peaked at around seven million members and is probably far below that now). It’s never been a big revenue item, especially since Facebook’s never seen fit to run ads either in a sidebar or within the stream.

I’ve written a draft essay for Cites & Insights on FriendFeed and LSW. The essay will appear in the May 2015 Cites & Insights, which will be out right around April 9 (maybe a few days earlier, maybe not).

But wouldn’t it be loverly if the essay turned out to be premature? That is, if Facebook decided that the good will of a few hundred library folks, a few hundred scientists, no doubt thousands of folks in different formal and informal groups, and apparently fairly large numbers of folks in Turkey and elsewhere, justified keeping a server or two running and, as needed, restarting the service when it keels over?

I know I’d like Facebook better if it made that decision. (Make it possible for me to *keep* the Facebook stream at “most recent” without resetting it every day or using an add-on and I’d like Facebook even better, but that’s another discussion.)

I honestly can’t imagine that FriendFeed is costing Facebook all that much at this point. There hasn’t been any apparent software development in some time (and I’m certainly not asking for any).

See, the thing is, FriendFeed just works for LSW both as its oddly open and totally disorganized group of between a few dozen and 1,400-odd library folks and in the interactions many of us library folk have with others in the FriendFeed community. That may be partly because FriendFeed doesn’t have big user numbers. It may be because the software is elegant in its straightforward nature.

The funny thing is, many of us (I believe) really don’t use FriendFeed the way it was apparently originally intended: To feed it all of our various social media streams (Twitter, FB, blogs, etc.) and follow all the activity of our friends in one place. Some feeds still show up, but a lot of what makes FriendFeed worthwhile is conversation–logically threaded, easy to handle, all that.

I’ve seen a lot of professional questions raised and answered on FriendFeed. I’ve seen a lot of personal issues raised and in many cases helped with. I’ve seen one person encouraged to go to library school, mentored during library school, assisted with a post-graduation trip…and cheered on as he’s become an ALA Emerging Leader. I’ve done my own asking and answering. And LSW on FriendFeed, more than anything else, keeps me involved with the library community (and the open access community, for that matter).

For some reason–maybe the lack of size–it’s been easier to deal with trolls and spammers on FriendFeed than elsewhere. Maybe that’s because it’s always felt symmetrical: people who engaged in snark could reasonably expect to get snark back, and I never felt as though there was a hierarchy of FriendFeed users.

So there’s my probably useless plea:

Facebook: Keep FriendFeed running. We’ll appreciate it.

And, if not, at least some of us appreciate the six years’ extra life you’ve already given it.

The Open Access Landscape: 4. Arts & Architecture

Posted in open access on March 20th, 2015

Arts & Architecture includes most areas I’d consider to be in the fine arts (there are very few OA architecture journals) including music, art and dance—but note also two later topics, language & literature and media & communications. Due to original DOAJ subject assignment, or my own failures, there seem to be a few journals here that might properly belong in sociology. This topic includes 150 journals, which published a total of 2,647 articles in 2013.

 Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J A 109 73% 2,461 93% 23 Free 106 97% 2,060 84% 19 Pay 3 3% 401 16% 134 B 3 2% 74 3% 25 Free 3 100% 74 100% 25 C 1 1% 15 1% 15 Unk. 1 100% 15 100% 15 D 37 25% 97 4% 3 Free 33 89% 90 93% 3 Pay 3 8% 7 7% 2 Unk. 1 3% 0% 0

Table 4.1. Journals and articles by price

Table 4.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade; the fee, pay and unknown numbers; and average articles per journal. Note that boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all arts & architecture journals, while others are percentages of the particular grade—so, for example, 73% of the journals were grade A and 97% of that 73% were free.

There are no journals in this group with APCs higher than \$999. The handful of APC-charging journals does include those with the most articles, as is typically the case.

The small number of D journals (and tiny number of articles!) includes these subgroups: C: nine journals, no articles in 2013; D: one journal with two articles in 2013; E: nine journals with nine articles in 2013; H: one journal with 27 articles in 2013; N: one journal with seven articles in 2013; S: 16 journals with 52 articles in 2013—small journals are not that unusual in this area.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

 2014 2013 2012 2011 Journals 128 130 144 135 %Free 95% 95% 94% 95% Articles 2,947 2,647 2,742 2,275 %Free 82% 84% 80% 87%

Table 4.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 4.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014; how many articles those journals published; and what percentage were free.

The two “unknown” journals (with 15 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers still don’t add up because there are journals that didn’t publish articles in any given year—18 of them in 2013, for example.

The percentages of free journals and articles are fairly typical of humanities journals—nearly all free across the board. In this case, there’s not even the fairly typical trend of lower free percentages in recent years.

Among this set of journals, OA activity appears to be increasing, with 2013 dropping slightly from 2012 and but 2014 bouncing back significantly.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 79 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 17 published the same number (including eight cases where that number was zero); 54 published fewer articles. In terms of significant change, 74 journals (49%) grew by at least 10%; 26 (17%) were relatively unchanged; and 50 (33%) declined by at least 10%, including 14 that have yet to post any 2014 articles (some of which may be small journals with long posting delays).

 Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee % Prolific Large 2 0% 235 0% Medium 4 75% 337 62% Small 55 96% 1,376 96% Sparse 89 97% 699 99%

Table 4.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 4.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is in no-fee journals. While there are no prolific journals in arts & architecture, there are two large ones, both with APCs—but nearly all the action is in small and sparse journals. Of course, 20 to 59 articles per year (small) seems perfectly reasonable for a journal in arts & architecture—as does, for that matter, 10 to 16 articles per year.

Fees (APCs)

 APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All High 0% 0% 0% 0% Medium 0% 0% 0% 0% Low 2 40% 2% 42 10% 2% Nominal 3 60% 2% 366 90% 14% None 124 96% 2,224 84%

Table 4.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 4.4 shows the number of journals (that published articles in 2013) in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles in those journals, omitting unknown cases. There are no high-APC journals here: the highest APC is \$519 and two of the four nominal cases are truly nominal at \$30 or less.

For what it’s worth—which, with so few data points, isn’t much—there is a negative correlation (-0.50) between APC level and number of articles in a journal’s peak year: that is, journals with smaller APCs tended to publish more articles. That’s unusual.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

 Year Total Free% 1980-89 2 100% 1990-91 1 100% 1992-93 2 100% 1994-95 1 100% 1996-97 1 100% 1998-99 9 100% 2000-01 14 100% 2002-03 15 100% 2004-05 16 94% 2006-07 19 89% 2008-09 25 96% 2010-11 32 91% 2012-13 13 92%

Table 4.5. Starting dates for arts & architecture OA journals

Table 4.5 shows arts & architecture OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. For DOAJ journals as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush for APC-charging journals starting in 2006. As you’ll see in Figure 4.1, that’s true (as far as it goes) for arts & architecture: omitting unknown cases, there are no APC-charging journals starting earlier than 2006, but only a handful since then.

Figure 4.1. Arts & architecture OA journals by starting date

 Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl 1980-89 2 29 15 1990-91 1 19 19 1992-93 2 29 15 1994-95 1 16 16 1996-97 1 67 67 1998-99 6 173 29 2000-01 14 276 20 2002-03 13 176 14 2004-05 14 219 16 2006-07 16 431 27 2008-09 21 365 17 2010-11 26 512 20 2012-13 13 335 26

Table 4.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 4.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles per journal. I don’t think there’s anything especially noteworthy here.

Mostly small and very small journals, almost all of them without fees: that’s the picture here and it’s much as you’d expect. Very small (what I call “sparse”) can also frequently mean two things: long delays for online posting and years when there simply aren’t any articles. Both of those come into play here, I believe—if 2014 counts were taken in, say, July 2015, I suspect there would be more journals represented, but not all 150 by any means.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape: 3. Anthropology

Posted in open access on March 13th, 2015

Anthropology includes archæology and sports science. This topic includes 132 journals, which published a total of 2,663 articles in 2013

 Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J A 91 69% 2,043 77% 22 Free 81 89% 1,761 86% 22 Pay 10 11% 282 14% 28 A\$ pay 2 2% 81 3% 41 B 12 9% 209 8% 17 Free 9 75% 150 72% 17 Pay 3 25% 59 28% 20 C 3 2% 190 7% 63 Unknown 3 100% 190 100% 63 D 24 18% 140 5% 6 Free 23 96% 138 99% 6 Pay 1 4% 2 1% 2

Table 3.1. Journals and articles by grade and price

Table 3.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade; the free, pay and unknown numbers; and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all anthropology journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade (so, for example, 9% of the journals were grade B, and 75% of those journals were free).

All A\$ journals have APCs of \$1,000 or more, so they’re all by definition in the Pay category, so the separate line is omitted. It’s fairly typical for these journals to have more articles per journal than ones with lower or no APCs—but in this case, there’s the oddity that the three journals to be avoided, all because of unknown APCs, have even more articles.

D journals—which, as is usually the case, have very few articles overall—include these subgroups: C: three journals, no articles in 2013 or 2014; D: one journal, 6 articles; E: four journals, 50 articles; H: three journals, 36 articles; N: one journal, no articles; S: 12 journals, 48 articles. Two of the three H journals have returned from hiatus, with significant numbers of 2014 articles, and the one apparently-dying journal may be returning to life.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

 2014 2013 2012 2011 Journals 113 122 123 109 %Free 86% 87% 88% 89% Articles 2,632 2,473 2,648 2,308 %Free 76% 83% 82% 83%

Table 3.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 3.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014; how many articles those journals published; and what percentage was free.

The three “unknown” journals (with 190 articles in 2013 and 162 in 2014) are omitted. The journal numbers don’t add up to 129 because there are some journals that don’t publish articles in any given year—seven of them in 2013, for example.

Percentages of free journals and articles from those journals are typical of the social sciences, with free journals dominating. The percentage of articles from free journals has declined slightly, as has the percentage of free journals, but in neither case is the decline major.

OA activity in anthropology is up slightly from 2013—but not quite up to 2012 levels for this set of journals. (There may be new journals that emerged after May 7, 2014.)

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis (and including the three “unknown” journals), 68 journals published more papers in 2014 than in 2013; 11 had the same number; 53 published fewer articles. In terms of significant change, 67 (51%) increased article volume by at least 10%; 47 (36%) had at least a 10% decline; and 18 (14%) were relatively unchanged. Of the 47 journals with significantly fewer articles, 11 had no 2014 articles and may yet post them on a delayed basis.

 Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee % Prolific 0 0 Large 0 0 Medium 9 67% 753 60% Small 49 82% 1290 79% Sparse 74 91% 620 93%

Table 3.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 3.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is no-fee. There are no prolific or even large anthropology journals; most are sparse. Only three journals published more than 100 articles in their peak year (161 the highest), and the peak for 2014 was 118 articles.

As expected, even with the dominance of no-fee journals for this topic (or cluster of topics), the percentage of no-fee articles and journals goes down as the volume goes up.

Fees (APCs)

 APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All High 1 6% 1% 54 13% 2% Medium 2 13% 2% 120 28% 5% Low 6 38% 5% 80 19% 3% Nominal 7 44% 5% 170 40% 7% None 113 88% 2,049 83%

Table 3.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 3.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: \$1,451+; Medium: \$601 to \$1,450; Low: \$201-\$600; Nominal: \$8 to \$200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals.

Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of the OA universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between anthropology/archaeology journals and OA as a whole: almost no very expensive journals, with most of the fee-charging journals showing fairly modest fees. Of course, there are so few fee-charging journals in all in this topic that Table 3.4 may not be terribly meaningful. The base line here: Only three journals charge more than \$600.

While there’s no significant correlation (0.25) between peak article volume and APC level, there is a modest correlation (0.41) for 2013 articles—but that correlation drops to insignificant levels (0.27) for 2014 article volumes, so it’s not particularly meaningful.

Starting Dates

 Year Total Free% 1970-79 1 100% 1980-89 4 100% 1990-91 2 0% 1992-93 3 100% 1994-95 3 100% 1996-97 6 83% 1998-99 3 67% 2000-01 7 100% 2002-03 11 55% 2004-05 11 100% 2006-07 18 100% 2008-09 22 91% 2010-11 24 88% 2012-13 17 71%

Table 3.5. Starting dates for anthropology OA journals

Table 3.5 shows anthropology/archaeology OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. While I get the sense from DOAJ as a whole that there has been a gold rush of fee-charging journals from 2006 through 2012, that’s not evident here—but there are so few fee-charging journals that any pattern would be hard to spot. Note that there weren’t any very early journals that are now OA.

Figure 3.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 3.5, but in a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. I’ve added markers for pay journals, since the 1990-91 and 2002-03 cases would otherwise disappear (since there’s no line).

Figure 3.1. Anthropology journals by starting date

 Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl 1970-79 1 11 11 1980-89 3 28 9 1990-91 2 10 5 1992-93 3 56 19 1994-95 2 17 9 1996-97 6 122 20 1998-99 3 54 18 2000-01 6 155 26 2002-03 11 399 36 2004-05 10 181 18 2006-07 18 398 22 2008-09 20 361 18 2010-11 23 616 27 2012-13 17 255 15

Table 3.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Finally, Table 3.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles per journal. Since all of the average articles per journal figures are quite low, it’s hard to suggest anything terribly significant here, although it’s interesting that the journals established in 2002 and 2003 seem to have more articles per journal than older and newer ones—and also that the largest number of articles is in journals that began in 2010 and 2011.

Anthropology (including archæology and sports sciences) OA journals are reasonably typical of those in humanities and social sciences—predominantly free, mostly lower APCs for those journals that do have APCs, generally smaller numbers of articles per journal.

At this point, excluding journals founded in 2014, it’s a relatively stable field since 2012, with less than a 4% variation in article totals for 2012, 2013 and 2014.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’d be interested in a book combining all of the topical views, with an additional graph added for each topic, please let me know–in a comment here or in mail to waltcrawford at gmail dot com.

The Open Access Landscape: 2. Agriculture

Posted in open access on March 6th, 2015

Agriculture includes aquaculture, fisheries and other aspects of raising and processing plants and animals, including food and some aspects of nutrition. This topic includes 309 journals, which published a total of 16,880 articles in 2013.

 Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J A 213 69% 12,376 73% 58 Free 150 70% 6,630 54% 44 Pay 63 30% 5,746 46% 91 A\$ pay 12 4% 1,490 9% 124 B 22 7% 1,019 6% 46 Free 7 32% 101 10% 14 Pay 15 68% 918 90% 61 C 23 7% 847 5% 37 Pay 7 30% 351 41% 50 Unk. 16 70% 496 59% 31 D 39 13% 1,148 7% 29 Free 23 59% 714 62% 31 Pay 15 38% 433 38% 29 Unk. 1 3% 1 0% 1

Table 2.1. Journals and articles by grade and price

Table 2.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Note that boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all agriculture journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade (so, for example, 7% of the journals were grade B, and 32% of that 7% were free).

Since A\$ means an APC of \$1,000 or more, all A\$ journals are in the Pay category, so that isn’t listed as a separate line. It’s not particularly surprising that those journals tend to have the most articles—and it’s typical of OA in general that journals with APCs publish more articles (on the whole) than those without.

The small number of D journals (with even fewer articles proportionally) include these subgroups: C: 11 journals, 25 articles in 2013; D: 5 journals, 21 articles; E: 4 journals, 16 articles; H: 10 journals, 1,056 articles; N: one journal, four articles; S: 8 journals, 26 articles. Worth noting: two journals make up the bulk of the H articles—one with 263 articles in 2013 and one with 536, for a total of 799 of the 1,056. Neither had any articles in the first half of 2014 when checked in late 2014—but when checked in early 2015, the one with 263 articles in 2013 shows 298 articles for 2014, so it’s apparently back. The other (with 536 in 2013) had eight articles in 2014, so it’s nearly comatose.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

 2014 2013 2012 2011 Journals 273 281 273 256 %Free 62% 61% 62% 64% Articles 15,266 16,383 14,702 13,205 %Free 44% 45% 47% 50%

Table 2.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 2.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published, and what percentage were free.

The 17 “unknown” journals (with 497 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers still don’t add up because there are some journals that don’t publish articles in any given year—eleven of them in 2013, for example.

The percentage of free journals is fairly typical for all of OA and didn’t change significantly during this time; the percentage of free articles is higher than the overall OA average and, as with that average, declined in recent years.

Is OA activity in agriculture declining? It’s really not possible to say, given that new journals may have emerged, that some journals post articles months after the publication date, and that some journals have erratic publishing patterns, but at least it seems likely that growth slowed in 2014. More specifically, the same set of journals published 917 fewer articles than in 2013—but note that one journal (discussed in the previous section, going from 536 to 8) accounts for more than half of that difference.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 125 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 24 had the same number; 160 published fewer articles in 2014 than in 2013. In terms of significant change, 89 (28%) had at least 10% more articles in 2014, 87 (28%) were relatively unchanged (-9% to +9%), and 133 (43%) declined by 10% or more, including 14 that have yet to post any 2014 articles (some of which may be small journals with long posting delays.)

 Peak Journals No-Fee% Articles No-Fee% Prolific 0 0 Large 17 24% 5,710 21% Medium 81 54% 6,274 53% Small 128 58% 4,129 58% Sparse 72 68% 767 70%

Table 2.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 2.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is in no-fee journals. There are no prolific agriculture journals (1,000 or more articles per year), and sparse journals are much less common than overall. That the percentage of no-fee journals goes down as the article frequency goes up is a consistent and expected pattern.

Fees (APCs)

 APC Jour %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All High 11 10% 4% 1,151 13% 7% Medium 19 17% 7% 1,347 15% 8% Low 41 37% 15% 3,558 40% 22% Nominal 39 35% 14% 2,882 32% 18% None 171 61% 7,445 45%

Table 2.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 2.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: \$1,451+; Medium: \$601 to \$1,450; Low: \$201-\$600; Nominal: \$8 to \$200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals.

Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of this study universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between agricultural journals and OA as a whole—e.g., far fewer very expensive journals and generally lower APCs throughout, with most fee-paid articles in journals with low or nominal APCs.

It seemed worth considering whether there’s a statistical correlation between APC level and volume of articles (as indicated by peak year, 2011-2013). That is, does the number of articles change in a predictable manner as the APC changes? The answer, at least for agriculture OA journals, is no: the correlation is 0.06, far too low to be considered of any significance.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

 Year Total Free% Pre-1960 4 75% 1960-69 4 25% 1970-79 4 100% 1980-89 3 67% 1990-91 4 75% 1992-93 3 67% 1994-95 6 50% 1996-97 9 89% 1998-99 15 87% 2000-01 18 67% 2002-03 31 71% 2004-05 28 82% 2006-07 41 49% 2008-09 44 57% 2010-11 58 45% 2012-13 35 37%

Table 2.5. Starting dates for agriculture OA journals

Table 2.5 shows agriculture OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. For DOAJ journals as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush for APC-charging journals starting in 2006—and agriculture is very much typical. Note that, except for odd cases in early year, the bulk of new journals was consistently free until 2005—and has dropped significantly since then.

Figure 2.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 2.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. Note the wide gap from 1996 through 2005, with free journals growing at a much faster rate—and the jumps in APC-charging journals since then.

Figure 2.1. Agriculture journals by starting date

 Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl Pre-1960 4 194 49 1960-69 4 216 54 1970-79 4 132 33 1980-89 3 172 57 1990-91 4 309 77 1992-93 3 145 48 1994-95 6 234 39 1996-97 9 400 44 1998-99 14 1,162 83 2000-01 17 807 47 2002-03 30 1,394 46 2004-05 27 1,205 45 2006-07 39 2,251 58 2008-09 42 3,137 75 2010-11 58 4,084 70 2012-13 34 1,038 31

Table 2.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Finally, Table 2.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles per journal. There are four unusual time periods: four journals beginning in 1990-91, 14 beginning 1998-99, 42 beginning 2008-2009 and 58 beginning 2010-2011. Those journals average 70 to 83 articles per journal per year; the rest all average fewer than 60, in most cases fewer than 50.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

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