Archive for the 'open access' Category

Feedback needed now: The Open Access Landscape

Posted in open access on April 27th, 2015

If you think the work I’m doing related to The Open Access Landscape 2011-2014 (and potentially 2011-2015) is valuable, read on–understanding that I really need some form of feedback this week (by May 1, 2015).

If you don’t think it’s valuable, feel free to skip the rest of this.

Anybody still here?

If so, then here’s the moderately short version (followed by the three pieces of the longer version):

I need feedback this week to decide how to proceed. Feedback can be a comment on this post, a message to me (waltcrawford@gmail.com), a response to the messages I’ll probably put up on various social networks… It should reach me by May 1, 2015.

Why by May 1, 2015? Because if I’m going to do something like an IndieGoGo campaign (see under “The Possible Campaign”), I’d want to discuss it in the June 2015 Cites & Insights. That would mean writing a new “The Front” before I start to revise and prepare the issue, which I plan to publish early next week.

Why IndieGoGo rather than Kickstarter? Because, at least the last time I looked, Kickstarter requires a video, and I’m not a video person and don’t really have the equipment–hardware and software–to do a decent little intro.

After my last experience staging such a campaign, I’m a little gunshy–and the 100% lack of  feedback based on the message at the end of every weekly post, and the extra post, doesn’t make me less gunshy.

Positive feedback does not commit you to contribute to the IndieGoGo campaign or, alternatively, to buy the book (PDF or paperback) when it comes out, which it probably will whether I do the campaign or not. It only says that you might consider it. I will not pester you–there won’t be individual emails saying “Well? Why haven’t you coughed up?”

The lack of positive feedback won’t necessarily doom the project. It will pretty much doom any crowdfunding campaign or putting much additional effort into the current project. It might or might not doom what I really want to do next year (see The Long-Term Goal below). Good feedback and a successful campaign would assure more effort and help assure the long-term goal.

That’s the moderately short version. The rest of this message consists of three parts: Potential additional refinements for 2011-2014; The Possible Campaign Outline; The Long-Term Goal.

Potential Additional Refinements for 2011-2014

Here’s what I’d probably do with good feedback and a successful campaign:

  • Add the 220 (or so) 2014 additions to DOAJ to the spreadsheet.
  • Do selective rechecking for 2013 values.
  • Redo key measures based on 2014 rather than 2013 counts.
  • Introduce new measures of article-quantity distribution, one based on quartiles of peak-article-count, one based on quartiles of cumulative article count for 2014 (that is, the range of 2014 article volumes that makes up one-quarter of all articles)
  • Try out making these two local and global (that is, showing the local quartiles for a given topic and showing how local distribution differs from global distibution)
  • Rework all of the chapters to add topics to table/figure captions, add new measures, and provide narrative summaries of the distinctive aspects of a topic’s OA journals.
  • As soon as the Library Technology Reports is issued, change the publication dates on remaining blog posts (which will not include any of these refinrements) so that new chapters appear twice a week rather than once a week.

The Possible Campaign Outline

If I did an IndieGoGo campaign for The Open Access Landscape 2011-2014, it would have a base goal of $1,000 and stretch goals of $1,500, $3,000 and $5,000, as follows:

Base Goal: Prepare and Issue Refined 2011-2014 Study

With refinements as shown above, to the extent that they’re easily doable. Issue results as a PDF ebook and a paperback book (with possible casebound option depending on campaign results).

Note in the perks below that the base goal might include making the ebook/PDF version free.

Note also that, if anybody contributes at the $75 and higher levels, the base goal also involves preparing an indexed version of Ethics and Open Access: A Cites & Insights Reader in late 2015/early 2016.

Stretch Goal 1: $1,500: Post anonymized data to Figshare

Additionally, all revenue in excess of $1,250 would count toward the long-term goal (see below).

Stretch Goal 2: $3,000: Probable move to long-term goal

See below.

Stretch Goal 3: $5,000: Long-term Goal becomes Action Plan

See below.

The Perks

  • $25: Option A: Acknowledgment in the book and a free copy of the exclusive PDF version (with in-PDF autograph on title page, and with working links in contents and figures table). At least a $40 value.
  • $25: Option B: Same as Option A, but with explicit preference to make regular PDF version freely available. (Otherwise, it will cost $40 for those not participating in the campaign.)
  • $50: Options A and B: Same as $25, plus 40% discount off a paperback copy of the book. (Planned price $45, so discounted price would be $27.) At least a $58 value.
  • $75: Option A: Same as $50 (and assumes Option B) plus a free PDF exclusive edition of Ethics and Open Access: A Cites & Insights Reader. (Exclusive: working links.) At least a $98 value.
  • $75: Option B: Like $75A, but instead of the 40% discount, a free PDF of The Open Access Landscape 2011-2015 in late 2016, if that project goes forward. (If not, I’ll come up with something else.) At least a $98 value.

All levels from here on include acknowledgment, the free exclusive PDF version and the free exclusive PDF Ethics and Open Access,  plus whatever’s stated at the level. If at least 20 contributors choose Option B or any level higher than $50, the non-exclusive PDF version of the 2011-2014 book will be made freely available.

  • $100: Add a free copy of the paperback. At least a $125 value.
  • $125: Add a free signed copy of the paperback. Priceless!
  • $150: Like $125, plus a free PDF of the 2011-2015 book. At least a $170 value.
  • $175: Add a free casebound copy of the 2011-2014 book.
  • $200: Add a free signed casebound copy of the 2011-2015 book.
  • $225: Everything–a free signed casebound copy and a free PDF of the 2011-2015 book.

The Long-Term Goal

Prepare The Open Access Landscape 2011-2015 during 2016.

  • Start with the DOAJ dataset as of early 2016 (say January 6 or so).
  • Gather data for as many journals as possible, including selective use of Google Translate to try to deal with journals with no English interface–and more extensive use of alternative methods to locate journals where the URL in the DOAJ dataset doesn’t work.
  • Recheck existing data in all cases.
  • Refine grading system and assign all new grades.
  • Prepare the project.
  • File the anonymized spreadsheet with Figshare.
  • (Propose a summary version in Library Technology Reports.)

If an IndieGoGo campaign yields more than $1,500 but less than $5,000, I’d do a later campaign (probably late Fall 2015) to try to raise the rest–that is, looking for $3,500 in new funding for the 2011-2015 project.

There it is. Lunacy? A good idea? Somewhere in between?

Let me know. By May 1, 2015, if at all possible.

The Open Access Landscape: 9. Ecology

Posted in open access on April 24th, 2015

Ecology includes environmental fields. This topic includes 153 journals, which published a total of 8,295 articles in 2013 and 8,754 in 2014.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

102

67%

4,977

60%

49

Free

70

69%

1,990

40%

28

Pay

32

31%

2,987

60%

93

A$ pay

11

7%

1,803

22%

164

B

15

10%

950

11%

63

Free

3

20%

71

7%

24

Pay

12

80%

879

93%

73

C

8

5%

367

4%

46

Pay

2

25%

83

23%

42

Unk

6

75%

284

77%

47

D

17

11%

198

2%

12

Free

8

47%

147

74%

18

Pay

8

47%

51

26%

6

Unk

1

6%

0%

0

Table 9.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 9.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade; the free, pay and unkown numbers; and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all ecology journals, where others (Free, Pay, Unk) are percentages of the grade above. All A$ journals are pay, and the redundant row is omitted.

As seems fairly typical, particularly for STEM, the A$ journals publish by far the most articles per journal, and—with the exception of D journals, an odd group—journals with APCs generally publish more articles than those without.

The small number of journals with much smaller numbers of articles proportionally include these subgroups: C (apparently ceased), three journals and a total of one article; D (dying): five journals, 22 articles; E (erratic): one journal, 23 articles; H (hiatus?): five journals, 142 articles; S (small): three journals, ten articles.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

134

145

137

123

%Free

56%

55%

55%

57%

Articles

8,439

8,011

7,336

6,320

%Free

29%

28%

29%

29%

Table 9.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 9.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles each year, including all of 2014; how many articles those journals published; and what percent was free or in free journals. The seven unknown journals (with 284 articles in 2013 are omitted from Table 9.2. The number of journals still may not add up, as there’s at least one journal that didn’t publish articles in any given year—exactly one in the case of 2013.

The percentage of free journals is relatively low for OA in general and didn’t change significantly. The percentage of articles in free journals is quite low and basically unchanged. The number of articles grows each year, even ignoring journals that began too late to be included in this study, although with somewhat lower growth from 2013 to 2014.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 65 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013, 79 published fewer, and nine published the same number. For significant change, 62 (41%) published at least 10% more articles; 26 (17%) published roughly the same number; and 65 (42%) published at least 10% fewer—including eleven journals that either didn’t publish any articles (yet) in 2014 or, in a couple of cases, have become problematic (e.g., popping up potential malware).

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific

0

0

Large

7

14%

2,875

4%

Medium

32

31%

3,106

24%

Small

61

59%

1,848

56%

Sparse

53

64%

466

64%

Table 9.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 9.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is or is in no-fee journals. There are no prolific ecology journals. All but one of the large journals charges APCs, and that one isn’t as large as the rest. Notably, the bulk of no-APC journals are either small or sparse.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

4

6%

3%

73

1%

1%

Medium

18

28%

12%

2,357

41%

29%

Low

23

35%

16%

2,502

43%

31%

Nominal

20

31%

14%

871

15%

11%

None

81

55%

2,208

28%

Table 9.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 2.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles in those journals; the seven “unknown” journals are omitted. %Fee is the percentage of all fee-charging journals; $All is the percentage of all journals and articles (except unknowns).

These are unusual numbers—specifically, not only are there very few high-APC journals ($1,451 and up), but those journals don’t publish very many articles. Since fee ranges are based on overall quartiles, any deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between ecology journals and OA as a whole—far fewer high-priced journals and moderately more with low and nominal prices (but most of the articles are in low-APC and medium-APC journals).

Is there a statistical correlation between APC level and peak articlke volume? No; the Pearson’s Coefficient is a very low 0.06

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
1960-69

1

0%

1970-79

1

100%

1980-89

3

100%

1990-91

2

50%

1992-93

0

1994-95

2

100%

1996-97

2

50%

1998-99

5

80%

2000-01

9

67%

2002-03

11

100%

2004-05

13

31%

2006-07

23

57%

2008-09

24

42%

2010-11

34

44%

2012-13

23

43%

Table 9.5. Starting dates for ecology OA journals

Table 9.5 shows ecology OA journals by starting date, including the percentages of journal starting in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. There’s a sense of a gold rush for DOAJ journals as a whole, with many more APC-charging journals starting in 2006, and that seems to be true here, except starting earlier. Relatively few journals started before 2004, but most of those that did are free; since 2004, most typically charge APCs (with 2006-07 a break in the pattern).

Figure 9.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 9.5 but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. Markers appear for APC-charging journals so that isolated periods are visible (e.g., 1960-69, 2000-01). Note that no ecology OA journals began before 1960.

Figure 9.1. Ecology journals by starting date

Table 9.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles (in 2013) per journal. Interesting rows are 1970-79, 1996-97 and 2000-01, with distinctly more prolific journals than in most other years.

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
1960-69

1

65

65

1970-79

1

121

121

1980-89

3

35

12

1990-91

2

63

32

1992-93
1994-95

2

28

14

1996-97

2

394

197

1998-99

5

275

55

2000-01

9

2,037

226

2002-03

10

323

32

2004-05

13

945

73

2006-07

23

858

37

2008-09

24

1,167

49

2010-11

34

1,274

37

2012-13

22

710

32

Table 9.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape: 8. Earth Sciences

Posted in open access on April 17th, 2015

Earth Sciences include geography, geology, oceanography, some related fields (including some aspects of tourism)—and astronomy. This topic includes 189 journals, which published a total of 7,109 articles in 2013 and 7,541 in 2014.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

130

69%

4,515

64%

35

Free

114

88%

3,010

67%

26

Pay

16

12%

1,505

33%

94

A$ pay

11

6%

1,698

24%

154

B

16

8%

597

8%

37

Free

4

25%

89

15%

22

Pay

12

75%

508

85%

42

C

4

2%

71

1%

18

Pay

2

50%

55

77%

28

Unk

2

50%

16

23%

8

D

28

15%

228

3%

8

Free

20

71%

151

66%

8

Pay

8

29%

77

34%

10

Table 8.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 8.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the fee, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all earth sciences journals, while others (free, pay, unk.) are percentages of the particular grade—e.g., 8% of the journals are grade B and 25% of those journals are free.

A$ means an APC of at least $1,000, so the redundant Pay line is omitted. As is usually the case, these journals have the most articles per journal—and, also as usual, it’s generally the case that APC-charging journals in a particular grade publish more articles than ones that don’t charge fees.

The small number of D journals—with a much smaller percentage of articles—include these subgroups: C: nine journals, 30 articles; D: four journals, 21 articles; E: one journal with four articles; H: five journals with 134 articles; N: one journal, seven articles; S: eight journals, 32 articles.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

172

180

179

171

%Free

73%

73%

73%

74%

Articles

7,522

7,093

6,223

5,401

%Free

46%

46%

49%

57%

Table 8.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 8.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that actually published articles in each year, including all of 2014; how many articles those journals published; and what percentage were free.

The two “unknown” journals (with 16 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers don’t quite add up because there are journals in any given year that don’t publish any articles—e.g., four journals in 2013. (Some of those that haven’t published any articles in 2014 may be annuals or others with long delays in posting articles.)

The percentage of free journals is high for STEM and didn’t change significantly over these four years. While the percentage of articles in free journals is also high for STEM, it did drop from a majority in 2011 to 46% in 2013 and 2014.

OA activity in the earth sciences continues to grow, even without considering journals that entered DOAJ after May 7, 2014. Growth did slow in 2014, but only slightly.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 82 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; eleven published the same number of articles; 96 published fewer articles in 2014 than in 2013. In terms of significant change, 76 (40%) published at least 10% more articles, 29 (15%) were relatively unchanged; and 82 (43%) declined by 10% or more, including eleven journals that have yet to post any 2014 articles.

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific

0

0

Large

7

14%

2,297

5%

Medium

21

48%

1,689

39%

Small

90

80%

2,509

79%

Sparse

71

77%

614

80%

Table 8.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 8.3 shows the journal in each size category (based on the journal’s largest volume in 2011, 2012, 2013 or the first half of 2014), 2013 articles in that group, and what percentage is in no-fee journals. There are no prolific OA journals in the earth sciences. All but one of the small number of large journals charge APCs, and a majority of medium-sized journals also charge APCs—whereas most small and sparse journals are free. The pattern is fairly consistent with other OA fields.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

1

2%

1%

7

0%

0%

Medium

27

55%

14%

2,261

59%

32%

Low

13

27%

7%

1,217

32%

17%

Nominal

8

16%

4%

358

9%

5%

None

138

282%

74%

3,250

85%

46%

Table 8.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 8.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: $1,451+; Medium: $601-$1,450; Low: $201-$600; Nominal: $8 to $200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals.

Since fee ranges are based on quartiles for all fee-charging journals in this OA study, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between earth sciences and OA in general—and the differences are striking: almost no journals with high APCs (one journal publishing so few articles that it’s less than 0.5% of all earth sciences articles), relatively few with nominal fees—and a lot with medium fees.

Is there a statistical correlation between APC level and volume of articles in a journal’s peak year? Not really: the coefficient is 0.13, too low to be considered significant.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
Pre-1960

5

100%

1960-69

1

100%

1970-79

6

100%

1980-89

4

50%

1990-91

1

100%

1992-93

0

0%

1994-95

2

50%

1996-97

8

88%

1998-99

8

100%

2000-01

12

83%

2002-03

20

95%

2004-05

18

61%

2006-07

14

79%

2008-09

33

64%

2010-11

41

59%

2012-13

16

69%

Table 8.5. Starting dates for earth sciences OA journals

Table 8.5 shows earth sciences OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started within a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. For DOAJ journals as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush for APC-charging journals starting in 2006. Here, the rush seems to have begun in 2004-05, the first period with more than two new journals in which more than 17% charged APCs. The real surge, however, is in 2008-2011, with the most new journals and relatively high APC-charging percentages.

Figure 8.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 8.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals (leaving out the two unknowns). While APC-charging journals never do catch up with free journals (unlike most of STEM), the big jump is obvious. This graph is a little unusual in that there’s a sharp jump in 2002-03, all but one of the new journals free, then a drop for four years before the high growth in free and APC-charging journals in 2008-2011.

Figure 8.1. Earth sciences journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
Pre-1960

5

120

24

1960-69

1

5

5

1970-79

6

373

62

1980-89

4

71

18

1990-91

1

5

5

1994-95

2

130

65

1996-97

8

387

48

1998-99

8

187

23

2000-01

12

490

41

2002-03

18

457

25

2004-05

17

1,712

101

2006-07

13

264

20

2008-09

31

1,484

48

2010-11

40

1,148

29

2012-13

16

276

17

Table 8.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 8.6 shows only those journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, how many articles they published in 2013 and the average number of articles per journal. To the extent that any periods stand out, they’re the high averages for 2004-2005 (primarily because the three most active journals in 2013 were all started in that period) and the surprisingly low averages for journals started in 2006-07 and 2010-11. (Many OA journals take a while to get going, so the low averages for 2012-2013 may not mean very much.)

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape 2011-14: Status and possibilities

Posted in open access on April 13th, 2015

If you haven’t seen any of The Open Access Landscape posts, they’re not hard to find. If you don’t give a damn about OA or these subject-oriented discussions, then you should move along: nothing to see here.

If you do care, then please read on and comment if appropriate.

Status

It now seems probable that (barring death, disease, family crises or being so unnerved by the end of FriendFeed that I just stop doing everything) I will include full-2014 article counts in all of the subject posts.

I’ve been nibbling away at the 1,702 OA journals in medicine, and now have 1,400 of them done. It’s been good to do them 50 to 100 at a time, not only to get them all done but because a bunch of the journals insist on putting up a picture with each article in the tables of contents, and I can only take so many of those medical pictures at one sitting…

It also seems probable that (with the same caveats) I’ll do the full series. (If I disappeared tomorrow, you’d see six more posts–I’m a little ahead.)

Possibilities

As I noted in “The Front” in the May 2015 Cites & Insights, each post in this series begins as a draft chapter in a possible book–and I’m already adding one more table to each chapter after posting it (using Word’s blog template and publish-to-blog capabilities). That essay includes a somewhat compressed example of the additional table, which I find to be quite revealing.

I’d like to do the book–but it only makes sense to do it if I believe there will be some sales. That’s why I’ve invited comments (or direct email) on each post to express interest. To date, there have been no expressions of interest. That may (or may not) doom the project.

There are also some possibilities that could make the book more interesting and cause it to deviate further from the series of posts, depending on how much additional work I wished to do. For example:

  • I could add the 220-odd journals in DOAJ that began in 2014 and aren’t already in the study (six 2014 journals are there already), making Table x.2 and the discussion of whether OA in a given subject appears to be growing or declining even more complete. (That would also mean replacing Figure x.2, the new figure at the end of each current draft chapter.) In this case, I’d only modify those portions of the discussion, not the rest. Level of effort: Moderate (maybe an extra half-week to do the data gathering and 15-30 minutes per chapter, or 7-14 hours overall, to update the tables and discussions).

This would still not make this book a full 2011-2014 up-to-date picture or replacement for the Library Technology Reports issue, as I wouldn’t be including a detailed over view and–more significantly–I haven’t done any backfilling (adding or updating 2013 and sometimes 2012 figures for late article postings), I wouldn’t be adding what must be hundreds of earlier journals added to DOAJ since May 2014, I wouldn’t be modifying any grades or subgrades based on new data (e.g., a few “dead” journals have come back to life), and most of the analysis would still be based on 2013 rather than 2014 data.

  • I could add new analysis of article distribution by journal size, based on 2014 article counts and with segments based on actual data rather than my own sense of appropriate levels. (That is: I’d do running totals for all journals and for each subject, starting with the most prolific journal and continuing downward, then assign overall segments based on, say, the article count range representing one-quarter of all articles, etc.–then applying those ranges to subjects. Very similar to what I’ve done with fee levels.) Level of effort: Also moderate–no new data gathering, but more new analysis and adding new tables and text to all chapters. Worth: Another interesting way of looking at the data.
  • Theoretically, I could move to 2014 data for all of the tables that involve article counts (tables x.1, x.3, x.4, x.6–basically everything except table x.5 and figure x.1) and update the tables and text. Level of effort: Significant, as it means essentially rewriting most of each chapter.
  • Theoretically, I could add more journals–both new additions to DOAJ and, using Chrome as a browser and Google’s translate facilities, more of the non-English journals. At that point, the only thing that would make this not a full 2011-2014 picture would be the lack of backfilling and grade changing. I could even do limited backfilling, looking at journals with no 2013 articles or 2013 counts that are less than 2/3 of 2014 counts. Level of effort: Major, both investigation and rewriting everything.

I guess the question is whether any or all of these are worth doing, and “worth” at some point needs to include a financial aspect, at least a limited one.

These all lead up to the issue of whether it will make sense to do a five-year 2011-2015 study, rechecking all data. That wouldn’t take as long as the current study has taken, because I understand some of the article-count shortcuts better and because I could reuse a lot of the data, but it would still be a multi-hundred-hour project. I really want to do it; I’m looking for ways to make it realistic.

For either of these–whether to do an expanded 2011-2014 job with one or more of the bullets above included, and whether to plan on a 2011-2015 study in the first half of 2016–feedback is needed. Feedback might include whether it would be ludicrous to do an Indiegogo fundraiser in either or both cases, or whether there are other sources of (relatively modest) funding (e.g., doing all four bullets and a really good book for 2011-2014 might be at the $2,500-$4,000 level, where doing just the first or first two bullets might be justified at $1,000-$2,000; the 2011-2015 project would look like $5,000-$10,000 total, depending partly on how much goes out in perks). My first Indiegogo attempt was a disaster, but that was in a whole different area.

Comments? Advice? Sources of funding?

I won’t make any serious decisions about the 2011-2014 project until I finish the subject pass, which I’m guessing is going to be late May or sometime in June; the book wouldn’t come out until the LTR issue does, and with added bullets might be as late as September or October 2015. The 2011-2015 project couldn’t begin until mid-January 2016 in any case.

 

The Open Access Landscape: 7. Computer Science

Posted in open access on April 10th, 2015

Computer Science includes software, data processing, AI, robotics and portions of what might be considered information science. This topic includes 338 journals, which published a total of 23,281 articles in 2013 and essentially the same number (not allowing for new journals), 23,153, in 2014.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

188

56%

10,667

46%

57

Free

116

62%

4,061

38%

35

Pay

72

38%

6,606

62%

92

A$ pay

11

3%

1,533

7%

139

B

60

18%

7,100

30%

118

Free

16

27%

1,057

15%

66

Pay

44

73%

6,043

85%

137

C

19

6%

3,394

15%

179

Free

1

5%

15

0%

15

Pay

6

32%

2,361

70%

394

Unk

12

63%

1,018

30%

85

D

60

18%

587

3%

10

Free

45

75%

361

61%

8

Pay

15

25%

226

39%

15

Table 7.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 7.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all computer science journals or articles, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade. So, for example, 18% of the journals are grade B, and 27% of that 18% are free.

Since A$ means an APC of $1,000 or more, all A$ journals are Pay, so that line doesn’t appear. As is fairly typical, those journals average many more articles per journal than other A journals—but, unusually, they average fewer articles per journal than the highly questionable C journals and just more than the large number of APC-charging B journals. Across the board and as usual, however, journals with APCs publish more articles—on average—than journals without APCs.

The D journals, which as usual include relatively few articles, include these subgroups: C: five journals with 33 articles in 2013; D: ten journals, 37 articles; E: 12 journals, 41 articles; H: 11 journals, 393 articles; S: 22 journals, 83 articles.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

284

316

304

262

%Free

53%

54%

55%

58%

Articles

22,314

22,263

20,111

12,562

%Free

22%

25%

27%

31%

Table 7.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 7.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published and what percentage were free.

The 12 “unknown” journals (with 1,018 articles in 2013, a fairly large number for journals that conceal their APCs) are omitted. The numbers still don’t add up to 338 because some journals don’t publish articles in any give year—ten of them in 2013, for example.

Although most computer science OA journals don’t charge APCs, the percentages here are lower than for OA as a whole or STEM, and show a slow decline (that is, increase in APC-charging journals) over recent years. The article percentages are distinctly low even for STEM, and the percentage of free articles has been steadily declining.

Without the “unknown” journals, total OA articles increased marginally in 2014, after a modest increase from 2012 and a huge increase from 2011. It’s quite possible that OA activity in computer science fields has plateaued, although new journals may change that picture.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 120 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 20 stayed the same; 198 published fewer articles in 2014. In terms of significant change, 111 journals (33%) published at least 10% more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 58 (17%) were relatively unchanged; and 169 (precisely half) published at least 10% fewer articles in 2014—including 42 that, so far, have not published any articles in 2014 (but a few of those are tricky cases, because one publisher’s archival controls seem to be malfunctioning).

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific

4

0%

3,316

0%

Large

26

8%

8,691

8%

Medium

86

29%

7,193

30%

Small

124

62%

3,284

64%

Sparse

98

76%

797

69%

Table 7.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 7.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is free or in no-fee journals. The pattern here is not terribly unusual: the prolific journals all charge APCs, nearly all of the large ones also do, and two-thirds of the small and sparse ones don’t.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

5

3%

2%

719

4%

3%

Medium

21

14%

6%

1,273

8%

5%

Low

43

29%

13%

5,964

36%

26%

Nominal

79

53%

24%

8,813

53%

38%

None

178

55%

5,494

24%

Table 7.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 7.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles for those journals. “Unknowns”—journals with APCs that aren’t stated—are left out of these calculations.

Since fee ranges for the OA universe were established based on actual quartiles (that is, 25% of fee-charging journals are in each range from High through Nominal), deviations from 25% represent differences between computer science OA journals and OA as a while. Here’ the differences are fairly clear: computer science journals are far less likely to charge high or even medium APCs than fee-charging OA journals as a whole—and the journals with relatively high fees don’t publish a large percentage of articles.

There is no statistical correlation (-0.06) between APC level and volume of articles; given the broad figures, a negative correlation might be expected.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
1980-89

2

50%

1990-91

0

1992-93

2

100%

1994-95

2

100%

1996-97

6

83%

1998-99

7

100%

2000-01

11

91%

2002-03

19

79%

2004-05

19

79%

2006-07

35

57%

2008-09

66

53%

2010-11

111

43%

2012-13

57

30%

Table 7.5. Starting dates for computer science OA journals

Table 7.5 shows computer science journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently do not charge APCs.

For DOAJ as a whole, I get a sense of a gold rush of new APC-charging journals from 2006 through 2011, diminishing somewhat since then. Not surprisingly, there are no very early computer science OA journals: before 1980, there just wasn’t much of a field there. The gold rush seems clear enough: from 1992 through 2005, at least three-quarters of OA journals do not charge APCs—but that percentage drops sharply in later years as the number of new journals rises sharply. Figure 7.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 7.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals, including markers so that certain dates show up. I think the graph is fairly clear: almost no APC-charging journals as free journals started rising—then a huge surge in APC-charging journals through 2010-2011.

Figure 7.1. Computer science OA journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
1980-89

2

23

12

1990-91

0

0

1992-93

2

65

33

1994-95

2

166

83

1996-97

6

303

51

1998-99

6

334

56

2000-01

11

375

34

2002-03

18

1,279

71

2004-05

18

2,165

120

2006-07

33

2,125

64

2008-09

64

4,184

65

2010-11

109

8,434

77

2012-13

57

3,828

67

Table 7.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 7.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and average articles per journal. Two time periods stand out: journals that began in 2004-2005 have considerably more articles per journal than others, with 1994-95 not too far behind.

Comments

Computer science is generally a newer field than most other broad topical divisions. While the emergence of hundreds of OA journals, most of them charging APCs, suggests a gold rush, most of those journals charge relatively modest fees—and the ones with four-digit APCs don’t publish a high percentage of articles.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape: 6. Chemistry

Posted in open access on April 3rd, 2015

Chemistry as a subject doesn’t seem to require much clarification (noting that most biochem ended up in Biology). This subject includes 136 OA journals that published 12,258 articles in 2013 and almost exactly the same number (12,429) in 2014.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

72

53%

5,431

44%

75

Free

57

79%

3,114

57%

55

Pay

15

21%

2,317

43%

154

A$ pay

14

10%

5,123

42%

366

B

15

11%

610

5%

41

Free

6

40%

153

25%

26

Pay

9

60%

457

75%

51

C

11

8%

725

6%

66

Free

2

18%

122

17%

61

Pay

4

36%

365

50%

91

Unk

5

45%

238

33%

48

D

24

18%

369

3%

15

Free

15

63%

242

66%

16

Pay

9

38%

127

34%

14

Table 6.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 6.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Note that boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all chemistry journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade (so, for example, 8% of the journals are grade C, highly questionable, and 36% of those eight journals require APCs and say what they are).

Since A$ means an APC of $1,000 or higher, all A$ journals are in the Pay category and the redundant line is omitted. Chemistry is an extreme case of the expensive journals having many more articles than other journals—with 10% of the journals, this group published 42% of the articles, more than twice as many per journal as less expensive apparently-good journals. Note that most apparently-good journals that don’t cost $1,000 or more per article don’t charge APCs at all—79% of them, publishing a majority of the articles in that group.

The group of D journals includes these subgroups: C: seven journals, publishing 85 articles in 2013 and 59 in 2014; no D journals; E: two journals publishing seven articles in 2013—but 41 in 2014; H: four journals publishing 242 articles in 2013 but only 113 in 2014; N: one journal, no articles in either year; S: ten journals publishing 35 articles in 2013 but only 17 in 2014 (noting that S journals are sometimes annuals and publish on a delayed basis).

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

123

126

115

99

%Free

61%

61%

59%

58%

Articles

12,261

12,020

11,139

9,016

%Free

29%

30%

32%

37%

Table 6.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 6.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published, and what percentage were free.

The five “unknown” journals (with 238 articles in 2013) are omitted from all figures and percentages. The numbers may still not add up because there are some journals that don’t publish articles in any given year—five of them in 2013, for example.

The percentage of free journals is fairly typical of OA in general and, somewhat oddly for STEM, actually increased over the past few years. On the other hand, the percentage of articles appearing in free journals is quite low (although higher than biology) and has declined significantly since 2011.

These journals published slightly more articles in 2014 than in 2013, after mild growth from 2012 and significant growth from 2011. Note that, as always, journals that began in 2014 (or appeared in DOAJ after May 7, 2014) are not included; you might expect 5% more journals based on past history, but most of them probably wouldn’t publish a lot in the first year.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 64 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; eight published the same number; and 64 published fewer articles in 2014—a nicely symmetric set of results. In terms of significant change, 53 journals (39%) published at least 10% more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 33 (24%) were relatively unchanged; and 50 (37%) published at least 10% fewer articles, including six that have not yet published any 2014 articles.

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific

2

0%

2,406

0%

Large

17

47%

5,903

39%

Medium

25

68%

2,107

72%

Small

58

18%

1,542

19%

Sparse

34

66%

300

61%

Table 6.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 6.3 shows the number of journals in each size range, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is in no-free journals. The picture here is a bit unusual: Although, as usual, prolific journals charge APCs and larger journals tend to charge APCs, with the percentage of free journals getting larger as the volume of articles gets smaller, small chemistry journals (20 to 59 articles in the peak year) mostly do charge APCs, unlike medium-size and sparse journals.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

5

10%

4%

2,473

29%

21%

Medium

21

41%

16%

2,878

34%

24%

Low

11

22%

8%

1,037

12%

9%

Nominal

14

27%

11%

2,001

24%

17%

None

80

61%

3,631

30%

Table 6.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 6.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles for those journals. Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of this universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between chemistry journals and OA as a whole—considerably fewer high-fee journals ($1,451 and up) and considerably more medium-fee ($601 to $1,450). Most fee-paid articles are in journals with medium or high fees. There is a modest correlation (0.31) between APC level and peak volume of articles.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
1970-79

1

0%

1980-89

3

67%

1990-91

1

100%

1996-97

6

67%

1998-99

3

100%

2000-01

5

60%

2002-03

5

100%

2004-05

7

100%

2006-07

16

63%

2008-09

15

33%

2010-11

42

45%

2012-13

31

68%

Table 6.5. Starting dates for chemistry OA journals

Table 6.5 shows OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in each date range that currently don’t charge APCs. There are very few old chemistry journals that are currently OA—none before 1970 and only five total prior to 1996—and in this case the gold rush, such as it is, appears to run from 2008 to 2011. Figure 6.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 6.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. I’ve included markers for APC-charging journals, since otherwise nothing would appear before 2006. Note gaps in dates in the graph—and the empty space for 1970-79 is because the single OA journal started in that period has an unknown APC.

Figure 6.1. Chemistry journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
1970-79

1

48

48

1980-89

3

1,021

340

1990-91

1

258

258

1996-97

6

1,370

228

1998-99

3

348

116

2000-01

5

1,607

321

2002-03

4

345

86

2004-05

6

441

74

2006-07

15

2,363

158

2008-09

15

1,454

97

2010-11

41

1,651

40

2012-13

31

1,352

44

Table 6.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 6.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, how many articles they published in 2013 and the average articles per journal. The numbers are all over the place, with notably prolific journals starting in the 1980s, 1996-97 and 2000-2001.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape: 5. Biology

Posted in open access on March 27th, 2015

Biology includes most everything that has “bio” as a leading part of its topic. This topic includes 336 journals, which published a total of 24,127 articles in 2013—and, excluding brand-new journals, 29,927 articles in 2014.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

155

46%

8,744

36%

56

Free

98

63%

5,149

59%

53

Pay

57

37%

3,595

41%

63

A$ pay

93

28%

12,807

53%

138

B

18

5%

1,401

6%

78

Free

5

28%

377

27%

75

Pay

13

72%

1,024

73%

79

C

24

7%

825

3%

34

Free

1

4%

32

4%

32

Pay

7

29%

225

27%

32

Unk

16

67%

568

69%

36

D

46

14%

350

1%

8

Free

22

48%

192

55%

9

Pay

22

48%

151

43%

7

Unk

2

4%

7

2%

4

Table 5.1. Journals and articles by grade

Table 5.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all biology journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of that grade—so, for example, 7% of the journals are grade C and 4% of those 7% are (or is, since it’s only one journal) free.

Since A$ means an apparently-good journal with an APC of $1,000 or more, all A$ journals are in the Pay category; I’ve omitted a redundant line. Biology stands out for the very high percentage of articles—more than half—appearing in expensive journals, themselves a high percentage of all biology journals. Notably, those journals on average publish more than twice as many articles per journal as APC-charging apparently-good journals with lower fees (but not quite twice as many as those requiring investigation).

D journals—which, as usual, have far fewer articles per journal than any other group—break down as follows: C: 11 journals with 94 articles in 2013; D: six journals, 37 articles; E: 6 journals, 55 articles; H: seven journals, 93 articles; S: 16 journals, 71 articles.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

301

314

299

268

%Free

39%

39%

40%

40%

Articles

29,352

23,552

22,374

19,993

%Free

19%

24%

24%

24%

Table 5.2. Journals and articles by year

Table 5.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles (so far) in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published and what percentage were free. The 18 “unknown” journals (with 575 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers still don’t quite add up because some journals don’t publish articles in any given year (and it’s likely that a number of small journals haven’t yet posted 2014 articles).

The percentage of non-fee OA journals is distinctly lower than in most of OA, but has stayed fairly constant. The percentage of articles in non-fee journals is very low, much lower than typical, and dropped significantly in 2014.

Since there appear to be slight downturns in OA publishing in some topics (omitting brand-new journals), it’s worth noting the substantial increase in article count for biology journals, up by nearly a quarter (24.6%).

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 150 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 16 published the same number; 170 published fewer. In terms of significant change, 127 journals (38%) published at least 10% more articles, 68 (20%) were relatively unchanged; and 141 (42%) published significantly fewer articles, including 17 small journals that have yet to publish any 2014 articles (those 17 published a total of 90 articles in 2013) and four, one of them with more than 100 articles in 2013, that seem to have disappeared or have defective sites.

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific

2

0%

2,195

0%

Large

28

21%

9,837

16%

Medium

90

31%

7,778

32%

Small

135

41%

3,601

39%

Sparse

81

46%

716

50%

Table 5.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 5.3 shows the number of journals in each size category (where “peak” does not include full-2014 numbers), 2013 articles in that group, and what percentage is or is in no-fee journals. Both of the prolific biology OA journals charge fees (one over $1,000, one under). There’s a clear and typical stepwise correlation between the size of the journal and the likelihood of it charging APCs—although even among the two least-prolific categories, a majority of journals charge fees.

 

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

94

49%

30%

12,024

68%

51%

Medium

35

18%

11%

2,597

15%

11%

Low

44

23%

14%

1,865

10%

8%

Nominal

19

10%

6%

1,316

7%

6%

None

126

40%

5,750

24%

Table 5.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 5.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: $1,451+; Medium: $601 to $1,450; Low: $201 to $600; Nominal: $8 to $200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals. (Unknowns are omitted.) %Fee shows the percentage of all fee-charging journals or articles in those journals; %All shows the percentage of all journals or articles (excluding unknowns).

Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of the full study universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between biology journals and OA as a whole—e.g., a much higher percentage of high-cost journals and much lower percentage of nominal-cost journals. Also noteworthy: more than two-thirds of articles in fee-charging journals (and a majority of all articles) appeared in the most expensive journals.

There’s no significant correlation (0.10) between APC charged and peak article volume.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
Pre-1960

7

57%

1960-69

2

0%

1970-79

2

50%

1980-89

9

56%

1990-91

1

100%

1992-93

0

0%

1994-95

5

60%

1996-97

9

67%

1998-99

12

67%

2000-01

15

53%

2002-03

19

53%

2004-05

20

35%

2006-07

25

32%

2008-09

48

35%

2010-11

112

28%

2012-13

49

35%

Table 5.5. Starting dates for biology OA journals

Table 5.5 shows biology OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. (One 2014 journal is omitted.)

For DOAJ as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush starting in 2006, with a sharp increase in the percentage of APC-charging journals—and there’s certainly a sharp drop in the percentage of free biology journals, starting in 2004 rather than 2006. With one anomaly (both of the journals started in the 1960s currently charge APCs), at least half of the journals started in each time period prior to 2004 currently don’t charge APCs—but that’s true for barely more than a third in more recent periods. The gold rush shows here as a sharp increase in the overall number of biology OA journals beginning in 2008, most of those journals charging fees.

Figure 5.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 5.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals (since they’re lines without markers, the pre-1960 mark for free journals doesn’t show). Note the dramatic change starting in 2006.

Figure 5.1. Biology journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
Pre-1960

6

308

51

1960-69

2

186

93

1970-79

2

117

59

1980-89

9

442

49

1990-91

1

30

30

1992-93

0

0

0

1994-95

5

527

105

1996-97

9

483

54

1998-99

12

1,044

87

2000-01

15

1,082

72

2002-03

18

2,356

131

2004-05

20

2,872

144

2006-07

25

1,756

70

2008-09

48

2,559

53

2010-11

110

8,200

75

2012-13

49

2,165

44

Table 5.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 5.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, 2013 articles and average articles per journal. Perhaps noteworthy are the high average articles per journal figures for 2002-2005.

Comments

The patterns are fairly clear: an unusually high percentage of very expensive journals, an unusually low percentage of articles in no-fee journals, a distinct gold rush in recent years.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape: 4. Arts & Architecture

Posted in open access on March 20th, 2015

Arts & Architecture includes most areas I’d consider to be in the fine arts (there are very few OA architecture journals) including music, art and dance—but note also two later topics, language & literature and media & communications. Due to original DOAJ subject assignment, or my own failures, there seem to be a few journals here that might properly belong in sociology. This topic includes 150 journals, which published a total of 2,647 articles in 2013.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

109

73%

2,461

93%

23

Free

106

97%

2,060

84%

19

Pay

3

3%

401

16%

134

B

3

2%

74

3%

25

Free

3

100%

74

100%

25

C

1

1%

15

1%

15

Unk.

1

100%

15

100%

15

D

37

25%

97

4%

3

Free

33

89%

90

93%

3

Pay

3

8%

7

7%

2

Unk.

1

3%

0%

0

Table 4.1. Journals and articles by price

Table 4.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade; the fee, pay and unknown numbers; and average articles per journal. Note that boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all arts & architecture journals, while others are percentages of the particular grade—so, for example, 73% of the journals were grade A and 97% of that 73% were free.

There are no journals in this group with APCs higher than $999. The handful of APC-charging journals does include those with the most articles, as is typically the case.

The small number of D journals (and tiny number of articles!) includes these subgroups: C: nine journals, no articles in 2013; D: one journal with two articles in 2013; E: nine journals with nine articles in 2013; H: one journal with 27 articles in 2013; N: one journal with seven articles in 2013; S: 16 journals with 52 articles in 2013—small journals are not that unusual in this area.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

128

130

144

135

%Free

95%

95%

94%

95%

Articles

2,947

2,647

2,742

2,275

%Free

82%

84%

80%

87%

Table 4.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 4.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014; how many articles those journals published; and what percentage were free.

The two “unknown” journals (with 15 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers still don’t add up because there are journals that didn’t publish articles in any given year—18 of them in 2013, for example.

The percentages of free journals and articles are fairly typical of humanities journals—nearly all free across the board. In this case, there’s not even the fairly typical trend of lower free percentages in recent years.

Among this set of journals, OA activity appears to be increasing, with 2013 dropping slightly from 2012 and but 2014 bouncing back significantly.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 79 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 17 published the same number (including eight cases where that number was zero); 54 published fewer articles. In terms of significant change, 74 journals (49%) grew by at least 10%; 26 (17%) were relatively unchanged; and 50 (33%) declined by at least 10%, including 14 that have yet to post any 2014 articles (some of which may be small journals with long posting delays).

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific
Large

2

0%

235

0%

Medium

4

75%

337

62%

Small

55

96%

1,376

96%

Sparse

89

97%

699

99%

Table 4.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 4.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is in no-fee journals. While there are no prolific journals in arts & architecture, there are two large ones, both with APCs—but nearly all the action is in small and sparse journals. Of course, 20 to 59 articles per year (small) seems perfectly reasonable for a journal in arts & architecture—as does, for that matter, 10 to 16 articles per year.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

0%

0%

0%

0%

Medium

0%

0%

0%

0%

Low

2

40%

2%

42

10%

2%

Nominal

3

60%

2%

366

90%

14%

None

124

96%

2,224

84%

Table 4.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 4.4 shows the number of journals (that published articles in 2013) in each fee range and the number of 2013 articles in those journals, omitting unknown cases. There are no high-APC journals here: the highest APC is $519 and two of the four nominal cases are truly nominal at $30 or less.

For what it’s worth—which, with so few data points, isn’t much—there is a negative correlation (-0.50) between APC level and number of articles in a journal’s peak year: that is, journals with smaller APCs tended to publish more articles. That’s unusual.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
1980-89

2

100%

1990-91

1

100%

1992-93

2

100%

1994-95

1

100%

1996-97

1

100%

1998-99

9

100%

2000-01

14

100%

2002-03

15

100%

2004-05

16

94%

2006-07

19

89%

2008-09

25

96%

2010-11

32

91%

2012-13

13

92%

Table 4.5. Starting dates for arts & architecture OA journals

Table 4.5 shows arts & architecture OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. For DOAJ journals as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush for APC-charging journals starting in 2006. As you’ll see in Figure 4.1, that’s true (as far as it goes) for arts & architecture: omitting unknown cases, there are no APC-charging journals starting earlier than 2006, but only a handful since then.

Figure 4.1. Arts & architecture OA journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
1980-89

2

29

15

1990-91

1

19

19

1992-93

2

29

15

1994-95

1

16

16

1996-97

1

67

67

1998-99

6

173

29

2000-01

14

276

20

2002-03

13

176

14

2004-05

14

219

16

2006-07

16

431

27

2008-09

21

365

17

2010-11

26

512

20

2012-13

13

335

26

Table 4.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Table 4.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles per journal. I don’t think there’s anything especially noteworthy here.

Comments

Mostly small and very small journals, almost all of them without fees: that’s the picture here and it’s much as you’d expect. Very small (what I call “sparse”) can also frequently mean two things: long delays for online posting and years when there simply aren’t any articles. Both of those come into play here, I believe—if 2014 counts were taken in, say, July 2015, I suspect there would be more journals represented, but not all 150 by any means.

 Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’re interested in a book-form version of this material (with an additional bonus graph added in each chapter), let me know, either in a comment or by email to waltcrawford at gmail dot com

The Open Access Landscape: 3. Anthropology

Posted in open access on March 13th, 2015

Anthropology includes archæology and sports science. This topic includes 132 journals, which published a total of 2,663 articles in 2013

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

91

69%

2,043

77%

22

Free

81

89%

1,761

86%

22

Pay

10

11%

282

14%

28

A$ pay

2

2%

81

3%

41

B

12

9%

209

8%

17

Free

9

75%

150

72%

17

Pay

3

25%

59

28%

20

C

3

2%

190

7%

63

Unknown

3

100%

190

100%

63

D

24

18%

140

5%

6

Free

23

96%

138

99%

6

Pay

1

4%

2

1%

2

Table 3.1. Journals and articles by grade and price

Table 3.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade; the free, pay and unknown numbers; and average articles per journal. Boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all anthropology journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade (so, for example, 9% of the journals were grade B, and 75% of those journals were free).

All A$ journals have APCs of $1,000 or more, so they’re all by definition in the Pay category, so the separate line is omitted. It’s fairly typical for these journals to have more articles per journal than ones with lower or no APCs—but in this case, there’s the oddity that the three journals to be avoided, all because of unknown APCs, have even more articles.

D journals—which, as is usually the case, have very few articles overall—include these subgroups: C: three journals, no articles in 2013 or 2014; D: one journal, 6 articles; E: four journals, 50 articles; H: three journals, 36 articles; N: one journal, no articles; S: 12 journals, 48 articles. Two of the three H journals have returned from hiatus, with significant numbers of 2014 articles, and the one apparently-dying journal may be returning to life.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

113

122

123

109

%Free

86%

87%

88%

89%

Articles

2,632

2,473

2,648

2,308

%Free

76%

83%

82%

83%

Table 3.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 3.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014; how many articles those journals published; and what percentage was free.

The three “unknown” journals (with 190 articles in 2013 and 162 in 2014) are omitted. The journal numbers don’t add up to 129 because there are some journals that don’t publish articles in any given year—seven of them in 2013, for example.

Percentages of free journals and articles from those journals are typical of the social sciences, with free journals dominating. The percentage of articles from free journals has declined slightly, as has the percentage of free journals, but in neither case is the decline major.

OA activity in anthropology is up slightly from 2013—but not quite up to 2012 levels for this set of journals. (There may be new journals that emerged after May 7, 2014.)

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis (and including the three “unknown” journals), 68 journals published more papers in 2014 than in 2013; 11 had the same number; 53 published fewer articles. In terms of significant change, 67 (51%) increased article volume by at least 10%; 47 (36%) had at least a 10% decline; and 18 (14%) were relatively unchanged. Of the 47 journals with significantly fewer articles, 11 had no 2014 articles and may yet post them on a delayed basis.

Journals No-Fee % Articles No-Fee %
Prolific

0

0

Large

0

0

Medium

9

67%

753

60%

Small

49

82%

1290

79%

Sparse

74

91%

620

93%

Table 3.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 3.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is no-fee. There are no prolific or even large anthropology journals; most are sparse. Only three journals published more than 100 articles in their peak year (161 the highest), and the peak for 2014 was 118 articles.

As expected, even with the dominance of no-fee journals for this topic (or cluster of topics), the percentage of no-fee articles and journals goes down as the volume goes up.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour. %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

1

6%

1%

54

13%

2%

Medium

2

13%

2%

120

28%

5%

Low

6

38%

5%

80

19%

3%

Nominal

7

44%

5%

170

40%

7%

None

113

88%

2,049

83%

Table 3.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 3.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: $1,451+; Medium: $601 to $1,450; Low: $201-$600; Nominal: $8 to $200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals.

Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of the OA universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between anthropology/archaeology journals and OA as a whole: almost no very expensive journals, with most of the fee-charging journals showing fairly modest fees. Of course, there are so few fee-charging journals in all in this topic that Table 3.4 may not be terribly meaningful. The base line here: Only three journals charge more than $600.

While there’s no significant correlation (0.25) between peak article volume and APC level, there is a modest correlation (0.41) for 2013 articles—but that correlation drops to insignificant levels (0.27) for 2014 article volumes, so it’s not particularly meaningful.

Starting Dates

Year Total Free%
1970-79

1

100%

1980-89

4

100%

1990-91

2

0%

1992-93

3

100%

1994-95

3

100%

1996-97

6

83%

1998-99

3

67%

2000-01

7

100%

2002-03

11

55%

2004-05

11

100%

2006-07

18

100%

2008-09

22

91%

2010-11

24

88%

2012-13

17

71%

Table 3.5. Starting dates for anthropology OA journals

Table 3.5 shows anthropology/archaeology OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. While I get the sense from DOAJ as a whole that there has been a gold rush of fee-charging journals from 2006 through 2012, that’s not evident here—but there are so few fee-charging journals that any pattern would be hard to spot. Note that there weren’t any very early journals that are now OA.

Figure 3.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 3.5, but in a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. I’ve added markers for pay journals, since the 1990-91 and 2002-03 cases would otherwise disappear (since there’s no line).

Figure 3.1. Anthropology journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
1970-79

1

11

11

1980-89

3

28

9

1990-91

2

10

5

1992-93

3

56

19

1994-95

2

17

9

1996-97

6

122

20

1998-99

3

54

18

2000-01

6

155

26

2002-03

11

399

36

2004-05

10

181

18

2006-07

18

398

22

2008-09

20

361

18

2010-11

23

616

27

2012-13

17

255

15

Table 3.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Finally, Table 3.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles per journal. Since all of the average articles per journal figures are quite low, it’s hard to suggest anything terribly significant here, although it’s interesting that the journals established in 2002 and 2003 seem to have more articles per journal than older and newer ones—and also that the largest number of articles is in journals that began in 2010 and 2011.

Comments

Anthropology (including archæology and sports sciences) OA journals are reasonably typical of those in humanities and social sciences—predominantly free, mostly lower APCs for those journals that do have APCs, generally smaller numbers of articles per journal.

At this point, excluding journals founded in 2014, it’s a relatively stable field since 2012, with less than a 4% variation in article totals for 2012, 2013 and 2014.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes

If you’d be interested in a book combining all of the topical views, with an additional graph added for each topic, please let me know–in a comment here or in mail to waltcrawford at gmail dot com.

The Open Access Landscape: 2. Agriculture

Posted in open access on March 6th, 2015

Agriculture includes aquaculture, fisheries and other aspects of raising and processing plants and animals, including food and some aspects of nutrition. This topic includes 309 journals, which published a total of 16,880 articles in 2013.

Grades

Grade Journals %J Articles %A A/J
A

213

69%

12,376

73%

58

Free

150

70%

6,630

54%

44

Pay

63

30%

5,746

46%

91

A$ pay

12

4%

1,490

9%

124

B

22

7%

1,019

6%

46

Free

7

32%

101

10%

14

Pay

15

68%

918

90%

61

C

23

7%

847

5%

37

Pay

7

30%

351

41%

50

Unk.

16

70%

496

59%

31

D

39

13%

1,148

7%

29

Free

23

59%

714

62%

31

Pay

15

38%

433

38%

29

Unk.

1

3%

1

0%

1

Table 2.1. Journals and articles by grade and price

Table 2.1 shows the number of journals and 2013 articles for each grade, the free, pay and unknown numbers, and average articles per journal. Note that boldface percentages (grades) are percentages of all agriculture journals, while others (free, pay, unknown) are percentages of the particular grade (so, for example, 7% of the journals were grade B, and 32% of that 7% were free).

Since A$ means an APC of $1,000 or more, all A$ journals are in the Pay category, so that isn’t listed as a separate line. It’s not particularly surprising that those journals tend to have the most articles—and it’s typical of OA in general that journals with APCs publish more articles (on the whole) than those without.

The small number of D journals (with even fewer articles proportionally) include these subgroups: C: 11 journals, 25 articles in 2013; D: 5 journals, 21 articles; E: 4 journals, 16 articles; H: 10 journals, 1,056 articles; N: one journal, four articles; S: 8 journals, 26 articles. Worth noting: two journals make up the bulk of the H articles—one with 263 articles in 2013 and one with 536, for a total of 799 of the 1,056. Neither had any articles in the first half of 2014 when checked in late 2014—but when checked in early 2015, the one with 263 articles in 2013 shows 298 articles for 2014, so it’s apparently back. The other (with 536 in 2013) had eight articles in 2014, so it’s nearly comatose.

Article Volume (including all of 2014)

2014 2013 2012 2011
Journals

273

281

273

256

%Free

62%

61%

62%

64%

Articles

15,266

16,383

14,702

13,205

%Free

44%

45%

47%

50%

Table 2.2. Journals and articles by date

Table 2.2 shows the number of free and APC-charging journals that published articles in each year, including all of 2014, how many articles those journals published, and what percentage were free.

The 17 “unknown” journals (with 497 articles in 2013) are omitted. The journal numbers still don’t add up because there are some journals that don’t publish articles in any given year—eleven of them in 2013, for example.

The percentage of free journals is fairly typical for all of OA and didn’t change significantly during this time; the percentage of free articles is higher than the overall OA average and, as with that average, declined in recent years.

Is OA activity in agriculture declining? It’s really not possible to say, given that new journals may have emerged, that some journals post articles months after the publication date, and that some journals have erratic publishing patterns, but at least it seems likely that growth slowed in 2014. More specifically, the same set of journals published 917 fewer articles than in 2013—but note that one journal (discussed in the previous section, going from 536 to 8) accounts for more than half of that difference.

Looked at on a journal-by-journal basis, 125 journals published more articles in 2014 than in 2013; 24 had the same number; 160 published fewer articles in 2014 than in 2013. In terms of significant change, 89 (28%) had at least 10% more articles in 2014, 87 (28%) were relatively unchanged (-9% to +9%), and 133 (43%) declined by 10% or more, including 14 that have yet to post any 2014 articles (some of which may be small journals with long posting delays.)

Peak Journals No-Fee% Articles No-Fee%
Prolific

0

0

Large

17

24%

5,710

21%

Medium

81

54%

6,274

53%

Small

128

58%

4,129

58%

Sparse

72

68%

767

70%

Table 2.3. Journals by peak article volume

Table 2.3 shows the number of journals in each size category, 2013 articles for journals in that group, and what percentage is in no-fee journals. There are no prolific agriculture journals (1,000 or more articles per year), and sparse journals are much less common than overall. That the percentage of no-fee journals goes down as the article frequency goes up is a consistent and expected pattern.

Fees (APCs)

APC Jour %Fee %All Art. %Fee %All
High

11

10%

4%

1,151

13%

7%

Medium

19

17%

7%

1,347

15%

8%

Low

41

37%

15%

3,558

40%

22%

Nominal

39

35%

14%

2,882

32%

18%

None

171

61%

7,445

45%

Table 2.4. Journals and articles by fee range

Table 2.4 shows the number of journals in each fee range (High: $1,451+; Medium: $601 to $1,450; Low: $201-$600; Nominal: $8 to $200) and the number of 2013 articles for those journals.

Since the fee ranges are based on quartiles of this study universe, deviations from 25% in the first %Fee column represent differences between agricultural journals and OA as a whole—e.g., far fewer very expensive journals and generally lower APCs throughout, with most fee-paid articles in journals with low or nominal APCs.

It seemed worth considering whether there’s a statistical correlation between APC level and volume of articles (as indicated by peak year, 2011-2013). That is, does the number of articles change in a predictable manner as the APC changes? The answer, at least for agriculture OA journals, is no: the correlation is 0.06, far too low to be considered of any significance.

Starting Dates and the Gold Rush

Year Total Free%
Pre-1960

4

75%

1960-69

4

25%

1970-79

4

100%

1980-89

3

67%

1990-91

4

75%

1992-93

3

67%

1994-95

6

50%

1996-97

9

89%

1998-99

15

87%

2000-01

18

67%

2002-03

31

71%

2004-05

28

82%

2006-07

41

49%

2008-09

44

57%

2010-11

58

45%

2012-13

35

37%

Table 2.5. Starting dates for agriculture OA journals

Table 2.5 shows agriculture OA journals by starting date, including the percentage of journals started in a given date range that currently don’t charge APCs. For DOAJ journals as a whole, there’s a sense of a gold rush for APC-charging journals starting in 2006—and agriculture is very much typical. Note that, except for odd cases in early year, the bulk of new journals was consistently free until 2005—and has dropped significantly since then.

Figure 2.1 shows essentially the same information as Table 2.5, but as a graph with lines for free and APC-charging journals. Note the wide gap from 1996 through 2005, with free journals growing at a much faster rate—and the jumps in APC-charging journals since then.

Figure 2.1. Agriculture journals by starting date

Year Journals Articles Art/Jrnl
Pre-1960

4

194

49

1960-69

4

216

54

1970-79

4

132

33

1980-89

3

172

57

1990-91

4

309

77

1992-93

3

145

48

1994-95

6

234

39

1996-97

9

400

44

1998-99

14

1,162

83

2000-01

17

807

47

2002-03

30

1,394

46

2004-05

27

1,205

45

2006-07

39

2,251

58

2008-09

42

3,137

75

2010-11

58

4,084

70

2012-13

34

1,038

31

Table 2.6. Articles per journal by starting date

Finally, Table 2.6 shows journals that published articles in 2013, when they started, and the average articles per journal. There are four unusual time periods: four journals beginning in 1990-91, 14 beginning 1998-99, 42 beginning 2008-2009 and 58 beginning 2010-2011. Those journals average 70 to 83 articles per journal per year; the rest all average fewer than 60, in most cases fewer than 50.

Definitions and notes

See The Open Access Landscape: 1. Background for definitions and notes