The second in a three-part post which will also be a Perspective in the next C&I, possibly modified.
A High-Def FAQ
For those who want more information or are considering early adoption at home, these notes may be useful. Iâ€™ve been tracking HD DVD and Blu-ray since they were first mentioned, but background for these questions and answers comes from four primary sources: James K. Willcoxâ€™ â€œThe format war goes nuclearâ€ in the April 2006 Sound & Vision, Gary Mersonâ€™s â€œHD DVD versus Blu-rayâ€ in the May 2006 Home Theater, a multiauthor special section on HD DVD & Blu-ray in the May 2006 Sound & Vision, and David Pogueâ€™s overly-cynical â€œWhy the world doesnâ€™t need hi-def DVDâ€™sâ€ in the May 11, 2006 New York Times.
What do both formats have in common?
- Both HD DVD and Blu-ray use blue-violet lasers (405 nanometer wavelength) to read 12cm (or 120mm) discs that are 1.2mm thick. Those physical dimensions are identical to DVDs and CDs (DualDiscs, which are CDs on one side and DVDs on the other, are slightly more than 1.2mm thick).
- Both are designed for high-definition video, with up to six times the resolution of standard DVDs.
- Both use heavier-duty DRM than DVDs: Advanced Access Content System in addition to other protectionsâ€”but, unlike DVDs, both formats are supposed to provide a way to copy a movie to a hard disc or a portable player (â€œMandatory Managed Copyâ€) while preventing further distribution. AACS can (but need not) include an â€œImage Constraint Tokenâ€ that lowers component video output resolution to a maximum of 960×540, one-fourth the possible maximum resolution; that might partially cripple such discs for early adopters of HDTV (those whose sets donâ€™t have HDMI or DVI/HDCP inputs). Fox, Paramount, Disney, and Sony/Columbia/MGM have all said they wonâ€™t use the token on initial releases.
- Both will offer more advanced surround-sound options than DVDs, with higher quality, more channels, and potentially many more alternate sound channels (for languages, commentary, etc.).
- Discs for both should cost a few dollars more than new-release DVDs: Current projections are $35 to 40 suggested retail for new releases, $25 to $30 for older items. (Amazon already lists some discs in both formats, suggesting that typical discount prices will be $20 to $25 in most cases.)
- HD DVD and Blu-ray players will also play DVDs and CDs. As with DVD players, thereâ€™s less assurance that any given player will handle all of the recordable variants.
- Warner Brothers, Paramount, New Line, and HBO plan to release discs in both formats. Netflix plans to rent discs in both formats. HP, LG, and Samsung are backing both formats on the hardware sideâ€”and Samsung and LG plan to develop players that can handle both formats.
- Discs that began as movies should be mastered as â€œ1080p/24â€â€”that is, 1920×1080 resolution, with a full frame at that resolution generated 24 times a second. (24 frames per second is the standard rate for movies, as opposed to 30 or 60 fps for video.)
- Players for both formats will allow you to make menu selections while the picture is playing (or while pausing the selection). In practice, some DVD players have allowed you to change options while a picture is playing for a long time, but you have to make the changes using the playerâ€™s menu system rather than the discâ€™s menu system.
- Recorders and burners (that is, recording drives for PCs) will be available for both formats, probably within a year.
Whatâ€™s different about HD DVD?
HD DVD was primarily developed by Toshiba, and its biggest strength is that itâ€™s very similar to DVDâ€”similar enough that the same production lines should be able to handle HD DVD with little adjustment. That should mean lower production costs for discs, at least initially. (Specifically, the lowest information layer is 0.6mm from the surface, just as in DVDs. The laser spot size is 0.62 micrometers, as compared to 1.1 micrometers for DVD.)
Single-layer HD DVDs store 15GB of data, just over three times as much as single-layer DVDs. Dual-layer HD DVDs will store 30GB, just over three times as much as dual-layer DVDs. HD DVD can transfer data at up to 36.55 mbps, as compared to 19.39 mbps for broadcast HDTV and 10 mbps for DVD. Note that these are all maximaâ€”in the real world, most DVDs have much lower average data transfer rates, and the same will be true for high-def discs.
Most HD DVDs will use MPEG-4 or VC-1 (otherwise known as Windows Media 9) data compression, more aggressive compression schemes than the MPEG-2 used for DVDs. At least one Microsoft honcho claims that MPEG-2 â€œwill not look as goodâ€ as VC-1 at the highest possible resolution (1920×1080 progressive). Notably, although HD DVD discs will supposedly be mastered at 1080p, the first generation of HD DVD players wonâ€™t go above 1080i (essentially half the resolution).
The royalty package for HD DVD players supposedly totals around $12 per player.
The first HD DVD players, from Toshiba, sell for $500 and $800 and are already on the market. (An RCA model that may already be on the market is a Toshiba player with an RCA faceplate.) More will follow from other makers. Microsoft plans to offer an HD DVD drive for the Xbox 360 some time in 2006.
Interactivity on HD DVDs will be based on Microsoftâ€™s iHD software, in turn based on XML.
Some studios will release dual discs, with a DVD on one side and an HD DVD on the other. In the future, three-layer HD DVDs might yield 45GB capacity.
Backers of HD DVD include Toshiba, Sanyo, Microsoft, NEC, and Universal.
Whatâ€™s different about Blu-ray?
Sony is the primer mover behind Blu-rayâ€”but itâ€™s made every effort to build a strong coalition. The Blu-ray Disc Association includes more than 170 companies, including most of the consumer electronics companies that were on the â€œVHS sideâ€ in the first recorded video format war. While Blu-ray discs are the same size and thickness as DVDs, the primary information layer is a mere 0.1mm from the surfaceâ€”and those discs have a new â€œscratchproofâ€ coating to make such fine tolerances workable. The laser spot size is 0.48 micrometers.
Single-layer Blu-ray discs store 25GB of data, just over five times as much as single-layer DVDs. Dual-layer Blu-ray discs store 50GB of data. Blu-ray can transfer data at up to 48 mbps.
While Blu-ray discs could use MPEG-2, MPEG-4, or VC-1, most initial releases from core Blu-ray backers should use MPEG-2, including all of those from Sony-owned studios, which will aim for an 18mbps data rate. (Warner will use VC-1 for both Blu-ray and HD DVD discs.) As youâ€™d expect, Sony claims that MPEG-2 at the high data rates that Blu-rayâ€™s capacity makes feasible will yield the best possible pictures. All Blu-ray players will support 1080p output.
The royalty package for Blu-ray supposedly totals around $30 per player.
The first Blu-ray players will list for $1,000 and $1,800. Samsung should have players out at the end of this month or early June with Pioneer and Sony close behind. Sonyâ€™s PlayStation 3 includes a Blu-ray drive.
Interactivity on Blu-ray discs will be based on Blu-ray Disc Java (BD-J), itself based on Java.
While dual discs have been demonstrated using Blu-ray on one side, no studio has said it would release such discs. Multilayer Blu-ray discs holding 100GB have already been demonstrated.
Backers of Blu-ray include most PC and consumer electronics firms (Apple, Dell, Hitachi, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Philips, Pioneer, Sharp, TDK) and studios (Sony/Columbia/MGM, Fox, Disney/Miramax/etc.â€”the Buena Vista family, Lions Gate). Note that almost every Hollywood studio belongs to the Blu-Ray Disc Association.
Why are there two formats?
Money, technology and ego. The primary developers on both sides covet the patent royalties. Sony and Blu-ray friends argue that the higher-capacity disc will be needed; Toshiba and HD DVD friends claim that HD DVDâ€™s similarity to DVD will make the â€œtransitionâ€ faster and easier.
Discussions toward a compromise took place over several months. Similar discussions (and a healthy shove from studios and computer makers) finally resulted in a single DVD format (two competing formats had been developed, but only one made it to market)â€”but this time, talks fell apart.
Who benefits from high-def discs?
The cynical answer is â€œstudios and consumer entertainment companiesâ€â€”but thatâ€™s only true if people decide that high-def discs and players are worth buying.
So the real answer is another question: When do high-def discs make a difference?
Thereâ€™s a primary answer and a secondary answer. The secondary answer is so arcane at this point that itâ€™s probably not worth worrying about.
Primarily, high-def discs matter if:
- You have an HDTV with a large enough screen for the difference to be visible (Iâ€™d say at least 40″ diagonal, although Iâ€™ve seen suggestions that 35″ might be large enough). If youâ€™re watching very close up, as you might (for example) on the forthcoming Toshiba Qosmio supernotebook with its 17″ high-def screen and HD DVD player, you could also find the difference worthwhile.
- You can see the difference between true high-definition TV (at least 720p) and regular DVDs (480i)/standard TV. Apparently, millions of people who own HDTVs donâ€™t watch HDTV (either they have an HDTV monitor and havenâ€™t acquired an appropriate tuner or set-top box, or they have an HDTV but donâ€™t know how to find the HDTV stations) and arenâ€™t aware that theyâ€™re missing anything.
- You care about the difference. Nobody really knows how many people will find high-quality DVD, upscaled to HDTV resolution (although â€œupscalingâ€ doesnâ€™t add new picture information), â€œgood enoughâ€ when compared to high-def discs.
Secondarily, the extra storage on high-def discs could matter in several special situations, although Iâ€™d guess none of them are relevant at the moment:
- You donâ€™t care much about the extra visual quality, but your golden ears are offended by the shortcomings in current DVD surround sound. High-def discs should have higher-quality sound and more channels.
- Youâ€™re looking for language tracks that arenâ€™t on current DVDs; with up to 32 channels, high-def discs could include a wide choice of dubbed or subtitled choicesâ€”although that requires that studios go to the expense of providing such choices.
- Youâ€™re hot for interactivity. Increased data rates, more data space, and internet connectivity (which will be present in most players) could yield much more interesting interactionsâ€”but how many of you think much about DVD interactivity?
What happened in similar format wars?
Similarity can be hard to define, but hereâ€™s a quick take on several dual-format situations, offered chronologically:
- Videocassettes: Betamax was first and better, but VHS had a longer recording time and more big companies behind it. Outcome: It took more than a decade for complete victory (actually 13 years, the period from Betamaxâ€™ introduction until Sony introduced a VHS recorder), but VHS won. (Note: Betamax really wasnâ€™t â€œfirstâ€â€”it was maybe fifth or sixth or tenth, but it was the first videocassette format to have any significant success in the home.)
- High-definition audio: DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD (SACD) came out at roughly the same time, both using DVD capacity to store higher-resolution sound and surround sound. Outcome: In this case, nobody won: While DVD-A and SACD still exist, neither could be considered a success. Most SACDs were probably sold because they were compatible hybrids (dual-layer discs with one layer playing as a CD, the other as an SACD, e.g., some Rolling Stones and Bob Dylan releases), and itâ€™s notable that Sonyâ€”originator of SACDâ€”releases a few DVD-As and has basically scrapped SACD. A few high-end classical labels still release SACD. â€œDualDiscsâ€ keep DVD-A in the market, but barely, particularly because some players canâ€™t handle the slightly-out-of-spec CD side. The question that really canâ€™t be answered is whether the dual failure is because there was a competition or because most listeners donâ€™t care about surround sound and couldnâ€™t hear the difference between CD and high-res audio. My guess is the latter. I would note that â€œuniversal playersâ€ became available within a year of the formatsâ€™ release, and eventually became affordableâ€”but nobody much cared.
- Recordable DVD: DVD-R/RW and DVD+R/RW emerged at roughly the same time (as did another format, DVD-RAM, which is primarily limited to specialized uses). Each format had certain advantages and a range of supporters. The advantages were subtle enough to be mysterious to most of us. Outcome: For most computer users, a draw: Virtually all modern DVD burners will handle all recordable and rewritable DVD formats except DVD-RAM.
Updated 5/19 (thanks, Ruth): WordPress now tries to retain Word formatting on a cut-and-paste, and this time that resulted in a fair amount of gibberish, at least on some browsers. I’ve eliminated all of the Word formatting, I think, possibly damaging intended formats along the way.
And I’ve been reminded of why I write directly in WP…